Characterization and properties of the biosurfactant produced by PAH-degrading bacteria isolated from contaminated oily sludge environment
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The aim of the present study was to investigate biosurfactant production ability of five different polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-metabolizing bacteria, such as Ochrobactrum anthropi IITR07, Pseudomonas mendocina IITR46, Microbacterium esteraromaticum IITR47, Pseudomonas aeruginosa IITR48, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia IITR87. These bacteria showed biosurfactant production using 2% glucose as rich substrate; strain IITR47 yielded the highest with 906 and 534 mg/L biosurfactant in the presence of naphthalene and crude oil as the unique carbon sources. P. aeruginosa IITR48 showed the least surface tension at 29 N/m and the highest emulsification index at 63%. The biosurfactants produced were identified as glycolipid and rhamnolipid based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. In particular, the biosurfactant produced by bacteria S. maltophilia IITR87 efficiently emulsified mustard oil with an E24 value of 56%. It was observed that, all five biosurfactants from these degrader strains removed 2.4-, 1.7-, 0.9-, 3.8-, and 8.3-fold, respectively, crude oil from contaminated cotton cloth. Rhamnolipid derived from IITR87 was most efficient, exhibiting highest desorption of crude oil. These biosurfactants exhibited good stability without significantly losing its emulsification ability under extreme conditions, thus can be employed for bioremediation of PAHs from diverse contaminated ecosystem.
KeywordsBiosurfactant Biodegradation Emulsification Crude oil Rhamnolipid Antibacterial
VT is thankful to UP-CST for providing fellowship. VKG is thankful to Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India for providing senior research fellowship. This manuscript bears IITR communication number 3580.
This study was financially supported by the UP Council of Science and Technology (UP-CST), Uttar Pradesh, India, under the project GAP-360.
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