Effects of ecologically relevant concentrations of Boral® 500 SC, Glifosato® Biocarb, and a blend of both herbicides on markers of metabolism, stress, and nutritional condition factors in bullfrog tadpoles

  • Anike L. L. Wilkens
  • Artur A. N. Valgas
  • Guendalina T. OliveiraEmail author
Research Article


The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the isolated forms of Boral® SC 500, Glifosato® Biocarb herbicides, and a blend of both herbicides on metabolism and oxidative balance markers of Rana catesbeiana tadpoles and on their nutritional condition. Groups of tadpoles were divided into different treatments: control (no herbicides), Boral® 500 SC (sulfentrazone: 130 μg/L), Glifosato® Biocarb (glyphosate: 234 μg/L), and a blend of both herbicides. After 7 days, the liver, caudal muscle, and blood samples were taken to subsequently perform the biomarkers determination by spectrophotometry. The intestinal condition factor increased in animals exposed to glyphosate and herbicide blends, suggesting a hyperphagic effect. This hypothesis was confirmed by the rise of triglycerides and circulating very low–density lipoprotein (VLDL). There was a significant increase in the levels of uric acid in tadpoles exposed to the herbicide blend. Corticosterone levels reduced significantly in animals exposed to glyphosate and the herbicide blend. Oxidative stress markers had a tissue-dependent response. In the liver, glutathione S-transferase increased, and superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased in animals exposed to sulfentrazone and glyphosate. Lipoperoxidation was reduced in the glyphosate treatment. In the caudal muscle, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were maintained, and there was a decline in the levels of glutathione S-transferase and TBARS only in the blend group.


Rana catesbeiana Intermediate metabolism Corticosterone Antioxidative enzymes Lipid peroxidation Herbicides 



The authors thank the Laboratório de Fisiologia da Conservação group, especially the biologist Luiza Petroli Ruckheim for the support in the practical work. We also thank the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for the mastership grant provided to the first author and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the productive grant provided to the corresponding author (process no. 307071/2015-4).

Funding information

This study was financially supported by the PPG—Ecology and Evolution of Biodiversitye of the PUCRS and by National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), process no. 307071 / 2015-4 .

Compliance with ethical standards

All procedures followed the Conselho Nacional de Controle de Experimentação Animal (CONCEA 2015) guide and were approved by the Comitê de Ética para Uso de Animais da Universidade (protocol no. 15/00471—CEUA/PUCRS).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5533_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (48 kb)
ESM 1 (PPTX 48 kb)


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Sciences, Conservation Physiology LaboratoryPontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.PPG—Ecology and Evolution of BiodiversityPorto AlegreBrazil

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