Moringa seed extract alleviates titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs)-induced cerebral oxidative damage, and increases cerebral mitochondrial

  • Mohamed A. Kandeil
  • Eman T. MohammedEmail author
  • Khalid S. Hashem
  • Lotfi Aleya
  • Mohamed M. Abdel-DaimEmail author
Nanotechnology, Nanopollution, Nanotoxicology and Nanomedicine (NNNN)


To investigate the influence of Moringa seed extract (MSE) on the cerebral Nrf2/NQO1 signaling in TiO2-NPs–induced brain damage, 80 male albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 20); group I was used as a control, group II received TiO2-NPs (500 mg/kg b.w/day orally) for 14 days, group III received MSE (100 mg/kg b.w/day orally) for 30 days, and group IV received MSE an hour before TiO2-NPs administration with the same doses as before. Administration of TiO2-NPs was started on the 17th day for both groups (II) and (IV). Administration of MSE significantly increased the cerebral mitochondrial viability and Nrf2 level with a simultaneous increase of NQO1 mRNA expression. This designates a powerful antioxidant effect of MSE which is indicated by a significant reduction of INOS expression, MDA, TOS, OSI levels, and DNA fragmentation % with a significant increase of GSH concentration, SOD activities, and TAC. MSE possesses an anti-inflammatory effect by a significant reduction of IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and anti-apoptotic effect manifested by a significant reduction of caspase-3 and Fas levels. In harmonization, dopamine, serotonin concentrations, and acetylcholinesterase activities return back to normal as compared to control group. These results were confirmed by the histopathological features which were alleviated with MSE administration. In conclusion, Nrf2 plays a pivotal role in the mechanism of TiO2-NPs cerebral toxicity and MSE as a Nrf2 activator can provide a powerful cerebroprotective effect, whereas MSE increased the Nrf2 expression and consequently restore the antioxidant activity of brain cells by increasing NQO1 gene expression and cerebral mitochondrial viability as well as inhibition of pro-inflammatory and apoptotic mediators.


TiO2 nanoparticles Moringa Brain Antioxidant Apoptosis Nrf2 NQO1 



We thank Dr. Rawya G. Abd El-Wahab, Department of Biochemistry, Beni-Suef University, Egypt, for helping in rearing of animals and sampling. The authors thank all staff members in the Biochemistry and Pathology Departments, Beni-Suef University, Egypt, for their help and advices.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5514_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 19 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineBeni-Suef UniversityBeni-SuefEgypt
  2. 2.Chrono-Environnement Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249Bourgogne Franche-Comté UniversityBesançon CedexFrance
  3. 3.Department of Zoology, Science CollegeKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt

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