Degradation and detoxification of phenanthrene by actinobacterium Zhihengliuella sp. ISTPL4
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are universal environmental contaminants of great concern with regard to their potential exposure and deleterious effect on human health. The current study is the first report of phenanthrene degradation by a psychrotolerant (15 °C), halophilic (5% NaCl), and alkalophilic (pH 8) bacterial strain Zhihengliuella sp. ISTPL4, isolated from the sediment sample of the Pangong Lake, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Degradation studies revealed that the optimum specific growth rate was observed at 250 ppm of phenanthrene with 81% and 87% removal of phenanthrene in 72 h and 168 h, respectively. During the degradation of phenanthrene; 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene; 1-phenanthrenecarboxylic acid; and phthalic acid were detected as intermediates. Whole-genome sequencing of strain ISTPL4 has predicted phenanthrene; 9,10-monooxygense; and epoxide hydrolase B that are involved in the phenanthrene metabolism. Phenanthrene cytotoxicity was evaluated with human hepatic carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and it was observed that the cytotoxicity decreased with increased duration of bacterial incubation and maximum cell viability was observed at 168 h (89.92%). Our results suggest, Zhihengliuella sp. ISTPL4 may promise a great potential for environmental remediation applications.
KeywordsPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Phenanthrene Biodegradation Zhihengliuella sp. ISTPL4 MTT assay Whole genome sequencing
The authors are thankful to Dr. Kristina Medhi (SES, JNU, New Delhi) for helping in editing the manuscript. The authors are also thankful to AIRF and JNU for analytical analysis.
The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to the University Grant Commission (UGC), Government of India, UPoE-II, for financial support and also for providing the Dr. D.S. Kothari Fellowship to Arti Mishra and Rashmi Singh. Rashmi Rathour is grateful to the UGC: NFSC, New Delhi, for the Junior Research Fellowship.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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