Microwave-accelerated sorption of cationic dyes onto green marine algal biomass

  • Ahmed M. Elgarahy
  • Khalid Z. ElwakeelEmail author
  • Gihan A. Elshoubaky
  • Samya H. Mohammad
Research Article


Monolithic algal green powder (MAGP) was fabricated based on the marine green macroalga Enteromorpha flexuosa. It was scrutinized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), point of zero charge (PHPZC), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area. The ability of Enteromorpha flexuosa to capture both crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. The influence of variable conditional parameters on CV dye and MB dye batch sorption was investigated. Results showed that percentage removal of 90.3% and 93.4% were obtained under optimum conditions of variables for CV and MB, respectively. Effect of microwave radiation on dye sorption was also appraised. Processing the sorption under microwave irradiation (microwave-enforced sorption, MES) increases mass transfer and a contact time as low as 1 min is sufficient under optimized conditions (exposure time and power) reaching the equilibrium. The reusability of MAGP sorbent was achieved for four cycles of sorption/desorption by using 0.5 M HCl. The ability of MAGP for cationic dyes removal from spiked tap water and petrochemical plant discharge wastewater samples was successfully registered. Ultimately, the displayed data showed a superior and excellent ability of algal powder to be exploited as a green, harmless, and effective sorbent for cationic dye removal.


Marine green macroalga Enteromorpha flexuosa Cationic dyes Microwave-enforced sorption  isotherm and kinetics 


Supplementary material

11356_2019_5417_MOESM1_ESM.docx (452 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 451 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zoology Department, Faculty of SciencePort Said UniversityPort SaidEgypt
  2. 2.Environmental Science Department, Faculty of SciencePort Said UniversityPort SaidEgypt
  3. 3.Chemistry Department, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of JeddahJeddahSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Botany Department, Faculty of ScienceSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt

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