Advertisement

Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and soil surrounding a coal-fired thermal power plant in the south-west coast of India

  • Minal Milind Gune
  • Wan-Li Ma
  • Srimurali Sampath
  • Wenlong Li
  • Yi-Fan Li
  • Harikripa Narayana Udayashankar
  • Keshava BalakrishnaEmail author
  • Zifeng Zhang
Research Article

Abstract

This investigation focused on the potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different matrices and their temporal variations surrounding a coal-fired thermal power plant in India. Samples were collected in different seasons for 1 year. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to perform the measurement of 16 priority PAHs. Average PAH concentrations were ranged from 0.71 to 2.99 ng/m3 in air and 1.59–22.7 ng/g in soil respectively. High levels of PAHs were found in soil compared to air, which indicated deposition in soil. This could be because of the fallout of high-molecular-weight compounds. During the monsoons, PAH concentrations in the air were the lowest compared to the other seasons because of the dilution effect. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrenes were dominant in the air, contributing up to 32.5%, 22.7%, and 19.2% of total PAHs, respectively. On the other hand, soils contained fluoranthene (12.3%), pyrene (10.7%), benzo[b]fluoranthene (10%), chrysene (9.82%), and indeno[123-c,d]pyrene (9.64%) compounds. The occurrence of indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (9.14 ng/g) indicated that the soil is contaminated from fly ash and diesel emissions from the thermal power plant and vehicular emission. The diagnostic ratios, thematic maps, and principal component analysis revealed that the fly ash, diesel emissions from the thermal power plant, vehicles, and biomass burning were the probable sources of PAHs in the study area. The human health risk assessment studies reveal that the soil samples are more prone to carcinogenicity than air samples. As per our knowledge, this is the first report on the impact of PAHs on air and soil in this region.

Keywords

Passive air sampler PAHs GC-MS Thematic mapping Human health risk assessment India 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Dr. TMA Pai Endowment Chair-Earth Sciences and post-doctoral research grant (to KB) supported this research.

Funding information

This study was supported by the China National Natural Science Foundation Program (No. 41671470 and No. 21577030).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5380_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (1001 kb)
ESM 1 (JPG 1000 kb)
11356_2019_5380_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (21 kb)
ESM 2 (JPG 20 kb)
11356_2019_5380_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (598 kb)
ESM 3 (JPG 597 kb)
11356_2019_5380_MOESM4_ESM.docx (24 kb)
ESM 4 (DOCX 23.8 kb)

References

  1. Adappa S, Tiwari RR, Kamath R, Guddattu V (2017) Health effects and environmental issues in residents around coal-fired thermal power plant, Padubidri: a cross-sectional study. J Environ Occup Sci 6:8.  https://doi.org/10.5455/jeos.20170215104352 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akyuz M, Cabuk H (2010) Gas particle partitioning and seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Zonguldak, Turkey. Sci Total Environ 408:5550e5558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arditsoglou A, Petaloti C, Terzi E, Sofoniou M, Samara C (2004) Size distribution of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ashes generated in Greek lignite-fired power plants. Sci Total Environ 323:153–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Awasthi SK, Krishnamurthy KV (1979) Geology of parts of Puttur and Sulliatalucks, South Kanara district, Karnataka. Progress report for the field season 1978–1979, Geological Survey of India, Karnataka (South) Circle, 1–11Google Scholar
  5. Census (2011) Village and town wise, primary census abstract (PCA) district census handbook Udupi. Page No 22-50Google Scholar
  6. Chen PF, Li CL, Kang SC, Rupakheti M, Panday AK, Yan FP, Li QL, Zhang QG, Guo JM, Rupakheti D, Luo W (2016) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aerosols over the Central Himalayas along two south-north transects. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-71
  7. Cheng JO, Ko FC, Lee CL, Fang MD (2016) Atmospheric polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of southern Taiwan in relation to monsoons. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(15):15675–15688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dallarosa J, Teixeira EC, Meira L, Wiegand F (2008) Study of the chemical elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particles of PM10 and PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas of South Brazil. Atmos Res 89:76–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dickhut RM, Canuel EA, Gustafson KE, Liu K, Arzayus KM, Walker SE, Edgecombe G, Gaylor MO, Macdonanld EH (2000) Automotive sources of carcinogenic polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matter in the Chesapeake Bay region. Environ Sci Technol 36:4635–4640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Government of India (2018) Annual report (2017-2018), Ministry of Power, Page No: 3-19 (source: https://powermin.nic.in/en/content/power-sector-glance-all-india)
  11. Gune M, Harshavardhana BG, Balakrishna K, Udayashankar HN, Shankar R, Manjunatha BR (2016) Rock magnetic finger printing of fly ash in soils around a coal fired thermal power plant. Environ Monit Assess 188:272.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5279-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hussain KA, Hoque RR (2015) Seasonal attributes of urban soil PAHs of the Brahmaputra Valley. Chemosphere 119:794–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ma W-L, Li Y-F, Sum D-Z, Qi H (2009) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polybromintatedbiphenyls in top soils of Harbin, China. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 57:670–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ma W-L, Qi H, Li Y-F, Liu L-Y, Sun D-Z, Wang D-G, Zhang Z, Tin C-G, Shen J-M (2011) Seasonal and spatial variations of air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in northeastern Chinese urban region. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 86:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Manoli E, Kouras A, Samara C (2004) Profile analysis of ambient and source emitted particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from three sites in northern Greece. Chemosphere 56:867–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Masih A, Taneja A (2006) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations and related carcinogenic potencies in soil at a semi-arid region of India. Chemosphere 65:449–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Masih A, Masih J, Tanej A (2012) Study of air–soil exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the north-central part of India – a semi-arid region. J Environ Monit 14:172–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Meij R, Henk TW (2007) The emissions of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations. Atmos Environ 41:9262–9272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mishra UC (2003) Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India. J Environ Radioact 72:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mohanraj R, Azeez PA (2003) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air and their toxic potency. Resonance 8:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mohanraj R, Solaraj G, Dhanakumar S (2011) PM 2.5 and PAH concentrations in urban atmosphere of Tiruchirappalli, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87:330–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. NOAA data (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) (2003) HYSPLIT (HYbrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory) Model access via NOAA ARL READY website/http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.htmlS. NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD
  23. Okedeyi OO, Nindi MM, Dube S, Awofolu OR (2013) Distribution and potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around coal-fired power plants in South Africa. Environ Monit Assess 185:2073–2082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pandit GG, Sharma S, Rao AM, Krishnamoorthy TM (1996) Chromatographic methods for the estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particulates. In Proceeding of the 5th National Symposium on environment (February 28–march 1, 1996, Calcutta, India), 133–136. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 60:576–589Google Scholar
  25. Peng L, Zeng FG, Chen M (2003) Distribution characteristics and source analysis of n–alkanes (C14– C31) and PAHs in total suspended particulates in urban area of Taiyuan city. Rock and Mineral Analysis 22:206–210Google Scholar
  26. Pies C, Hoffmann B, Petrowsky J, Yang Y, Ternes TA, Hofmann T (2008) Characterization and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river bank soils. Chemosphere 72:1594–1601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ramachandra TV, Aithal, BH (2012) Land use dynamics at Padubidri, Udupi District with the implementation of large scale thermal power project. Int J Earth Sci Eng 5:405–417Google Scholar
  28. Ramesh A, Archibong AE, Hood DB, Guo Z, Loganathan BG (2012) Global environmental distribution and human health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Loganathan BG, Sing Lam PK (eds) Global contamination of trends of persistent organic chemicals. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 97–128Google Scholar
  29. Rao MKM, Jagannathan V (1994) Hydrometeorology, Geo Karnataka assistant Geologists association, MGD centenary, pp 388–395Google Scholar
  30. Ravindra K, Ranjeet S, Grieken RV (2008) Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source attribution, emission factors and regulation. Atmos Environ 42:2895–2921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ray S, Khillare PS, Agarwal T, Shridhar V (2008) Assessment of PAHs in soil around the International Airport in Delhi, India. J Hazard Mater 156:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ruwei W, Jiamei Z, Jingjing L, Liu G (2013) Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-fired power plant bottom ash and fly ash from Huainan, China. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 65:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sampath S, Govindaraj S, Krishna Kumar S, Babu Rajendran R (2015) Spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric air of Tamilnadu, India and human health risk assessment. Environ Forensic 16:76–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shamshad A, Fulekar MH, Pathak B (2012) Impact of coal based thermal power plant on environment and its mitigation measure. Int Res J Environ Sci 1(4):60–64Google Scholar
  35. Stogiannidis E, Laane R (2015) Source characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by using their molecular indices: an overview of possibilities. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 234.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10638-02
  36. Sushkova S, Minkina T, Deryabkina I, Rajput V, Antonenko E, Nazarenko O, Yadav BK, Hakki E, Mohan D (2019) Environmental pollution of soil with PAHs in energy producing plants zone. Sci Total Environ 655:232–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tsapakis M, Lagoudaki E, Stephanou EG, Kavouras IG, Koutrakis P, Oyola P, Baer DV (2002) Th composition and sources of PM 2.5 organic aerosol in two urban areas of Chile. Atmos Environ 36:3851–3863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang W, Simonich S, Giri B, Chang Y, Zhang Y, Yuling J, Tao S, Wang R, Li W, Cao J, Lu X (2011) Atmospheric concentrations and air-soil exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarons (PAHs) in remote, rural, village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjinergion, North China. Sci Total Environ 409(15):2942–2950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. World Health Organization (WHO) (2000) Air quality guidelines for Europe, 2nd ed. WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 91. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHOGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and EnvironmentHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering, Manipal Institute of TechnologyManipal Academy of Higher EducationManipalIndia
  3. 3.Environmental Science and Technology GroupSRM Research Institute, SRM Institute of Science and TechnologyKattankulathurIndia

Personalised recommendations