Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19646–19654 | Cite as

Metal content in the liver, kidney, and feathers of Northern gannets, Morus bassanus, sampled on the Spanish coast

  • Veronica Nardiello
  • Luis Eusebio Fidalgo
  • Ana López-Beceiro
  • Alessia Bertero
  • Salomé Martínez-Morcillo
  • María Prado Míguez
  • Francisco Soler
  • Francesca Caloni
  • Marcos Pérez-LópezEmail author
Research Article


The value of birds as bioindicators for monitoring the environmental inorganic elements has been globally recognized. In this context, due to its well-known ecology and population stability, the Northern gannet (Morus bassanus) could be particularly useful. Dead Northern gannets (n = 30) were collected and samples from the liver, kidney, and feathers were taken, dried, mineralized, and finally analyzed via ICP-MS. Metals and metalloids, namely As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn, associated with environmental pollution and toxicity on living organisms, were evaluated. The mean highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Zn were found in the liver (0.916, 7.026, and 89.81 mg/kg dry weight, respectively). For Cd, the kidney showed the highest mean concentration (17.51 mg/kg dry weight), whereas for Pb, this value corresponded to the feathers (0.399 mg/kg dry weight). Significant differences were found between the age classes in terms of contaminant concentrations, with the adults exhibiting higher metal levels. This difference was significantly relevant for Pb and Hg, where the effect of age was observed for all the considered tissues. When considering the effect of gender, no significant differences were observed, in agreement with similar studies performed in other geographical regions. Finally, positive correlations between the concentrations of Hg and Pb in the feathers and in the liver (r = 0.688, p < 0.001 and r = 0.566, p < 0.001, respectively) were observed, as well as between the feather and kidney concentrations (r = 0.685, p < 0.001) indicating the possibility to use feathers, a non-invasive biomonitoring tissue, for better understanding Hg and Pb exposure in seabirds.


Bioindicators Birds Environment Metals Pollution Feather Liver Kidney 



The authors wish to thank to the Wildlife Recovery Centers from Galicia, and to Dirección Xeral de Patrimonio Natural (Consellería de Medio Ambiente e Ordenación do Territorio, Xunta de Galicia), for authorizing the use and transfer of corpses/specimens of wild fauna.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veronica Nardiello
    • 1
  • Luis Eusebio Fidalgo
    • 2
  • Ana López-Beceiro
    • 2
  • Alessia Bertero
    • 1
  • Salomé Martínez-Morcillo
    • 3
  • María Prado Míguez
    • 3
    • 4
  • Francisco Soler
    • 3
    • 5
  • Francesca Caloni
    • 1
  • Marcos Pérez-López
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Medicine (DIMEVET)Università degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (USC)LugoSpain
  3. 3.Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX)CaceresSpain
  4. 4.INBIO G+CCáceresSpain
  5. 5.IPROCAR Research InstitutesCáceresSpain

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