Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19785–19794 | Cite as

Indoor phthalate concentrations in residences in Shihezi, China: implications for preschool children’s exposure and risk assessment

  • Yahua Li
  • Jianjiang LuEmail author
  • Xiaowen YinEmail author
  • Zilong Liu
  • Yanbin Tong
  • Li Zhou
Research Article


Despite the risks associated with phthalate exposure, there are few studies emphasizing preschool children’s exposure to phthalates in residences in Northwest China. In this study, seven phthalates from indoor dust samples were measured in 50 residences in Shihezi, China. Preschool children’s exposure doses via non-dietary intake were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. Risk assessment was conducted by comparing the simulated exposure dose with benchmarks for reproductive toxicity and cancer specified in Proposition 65 of California. The detection frequencies for all selected phthalates were more than 75%, with the exception of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most principal compound in the dust samples (median = 455 μg/g and 462 μg/g in the bedroom and living room, respectively). The simulation displayed that the median DBP daily intake was 1.5–1.9 μg/day/kg for preschool children in Shihezi, which was considered a high level compared with similar studies around the world. The risk assessment indicated that almost all preschool children face potential reproductive risk due to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure, with medians of hazard index (HI) from 9.6 to 12.4 for all age groups. Therefore, from a children’s health perspective, attention should be paid to reducing indoor phthalate pollution and exposure in this area.


Phthalates Indoor dust Preschool children Reproductive toxicity 



We thank LetPub ( for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript.

Authors’ contribution

Yahua Li and Jianjiang Lu conceived and designed the study; Yahua Li performed the experiments, interpreted the results, and wrote the manuscript. Zilong Liu, Yanbin Tong, and Li Zhou helped with the analysis of data and reviewed the manuscript. Jianjiang Lu and Xiaowen Yin supervised the project and critically revised the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted.

Funding information

This work was financed by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21567024) and the Social Science Foundation of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (No. 18YB13).

Compliance with ethical standards

The present study involves human subjects. Consent has been obtained from subjects participating in this study, and the study has been reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee which is affiliated with the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002, China.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5335_MOESM1_ESM.doc (241 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 241 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps/School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringShihezi UniversityShiheziChina
  2. 2.The First Affiliated Hospital, School of MedicineShihezi UniversityShiheziChina

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