Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19785–19794 | Cite as

Indoor phthalate concentrations in residences in Shihezi, China: implications for preschool children’s exposure and risk assessment

  • Yahua Li
  • Jianjiang LuEmail author
  • Xiaowen YinEmail author
  • Zilong Liu
  • Yanbin Tong
  • Li Zhou
Research Article

Abstract

Despite the risks associated with phthalate exposure, there are few studies emphasizing preschool children’s exposure to phthalates in residences in Northwest China. In this study, seven phthalates from indoor dust samples were measured in 50 residences in Shihezi, China. Preschool children’s exposure doses via non-dietary intake were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. Risk assessment was conducted by comparing the simulated exposure dose with benchmarks for reproductive toxicity and cancer specified in Proposition 65 of California. The detection frequencies for all selected phthalates were more than 75%, with the exception of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most principal compound in the dust samples (median = 455 μg/g and 462 μg/g in the bedroom and living room, respectively). The simulation displayed that the median DBP daily intake was 1.5–1.9 μg/day/kg for preschool children in Shihezi, which was considered a high level compared with similar studies around the world. The risk assessment indicated that almost all preschool children face potential reproductive risk due to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure, with medians of hazard index (HI) from 9.6 to 12.4 for all age groups. Therefore, from a children’s health perspective, attention should be paid to reducing indoor phthalate pollution and exposure in this area.

Keywords

Phthalates Indoor dust Preschool children Reproductive toxicity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript.

Authors’ contribution

Yahua Li and Jianjiang Lu conceived and designed the study; Yahua Li performed the experiments, interpreted the results, and wrote the manuscript. Zilong Liu, Yanbin Tong, and Li Zhou helped with the analysis of data and reviewed the manuscript. Jianjiang Lu and Xiaowen Yin supervised the project and critically revised the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted.

Funding information

This work was financed by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21567024) and the Social Science Foundation of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (No. 18YB13).

Compliance with ethical standards

The present study involves human subjects. Consent has been obtained from subjects participating in this study, and the study has been reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee which is affiliated with the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002, China.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5335_MOESM1_ESM.doc (241 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 241 kb)

References

  1. Albar HMSA, Ali N, Shahzad K, Ismail IMI, Rashid MI, Wang W, Ali LN, Eqani SAMAS (2017) Phthalate esters in settled dust of different indoor microenvironments: source of non-dietary human exposure. Microchem J 132:227–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Axelsson J, Rylander L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Lindh CH, Jönsson BAG, Giwercman A (2015) Prenatal phthalate exposure and reproductive function in young men. Environ Res 138:264–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bekö G, Callesen M, Weschler CJ, Toftum J, Langer S, Sigsgaard T, Host A, Jensen TK, Clausen G (2015) Phthalate exposure through different pathways and allergic sensitization in preschool children with asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Environ Res 137:432–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergh C, Torgrip R, Emenius G, Östman C (2011) Organophosphate and phthalate esters in air and settled dust—a multi-location indoor study. Indoor Air 21:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bi CY, Liang YR, Xu Y (2015) Fate and transport of phthalates in indoor environments and the influence of temperature: A case study in a test house. Environ Sci Technol 49:9674–9681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanchard O, Glorennec P, Mercier F, Bonvallot N, Chevrier C, Ramalho O, Mandin C, Bot BL (2014) Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor air and settled dust in 30 French dwellings. Environ Sci Technol 48:3959–3969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bu ZM, Zhang YP, Mmereki D, Yu W, Li BZ (2016) Indoor phthalate concentration in residential apartments in Chongqing, China: Implications for preschool children’s exposure and risk assessment. Atmos Environ 127:34–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butte W, Heinzow B (2002) Pollutants in house dust as indicators of indoor contamination. Rev Environ Contam T 175:1–46Google Scholar
  9. Carpenter CP, Weil CS, Jr SH (1953) Chronic oral toxicity of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate of rats, guinea pigs, and dogs. Ama Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 8:219–226Google Scholar
  10. Du ZJ, Mo JH, Zhang YP (2014) Risk assessment of population inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds and carbonyls in urban China. Environ Int 73:33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fan GT, Xie JC, Yoshino H, Zhang HB, Li ZH, Li NP, Liu J, Lv Y, Zhu SW, Yanagi U, Hasegawa K, Kagi N, Zhang XJ, Liu JP (2018) Common SVOCs in house dust from urban dwellings with schoolchildren in six typical cities of China and associated non-dietary exposure and health risk assessment. Environ Int 120:431–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fromme H, Lahrz T, Piloty M, Gebhart H, Oddoy A, Rüden H (2004) Occurrence of phthalates and musk fragrances in indoor air and dust from apartments and kindergartens in Berlin (Germany). Indoor Air 14:188–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fromme H, Lahrz T, Kraft M, Fembacher L, Dietrich S, Sievering S, Burghardt B, Schuster R, Bolte G, Völkel W (2013) Phthalates in German daycare centers: occurrence in air and dust and the excretion of their metabolites by children (LUPE 3). Environ Int 61:64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gaspar FW, Castorina R, Maddalena RL, Nishioka MG, McKone TE, Bradman A (2014) Phthalate exposure and risk assessment in California child care facilities. Environ Sci Technol 48:7593–7601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guo Y, Kannan K (2011) Comparative assessment of human exposure to phthalate esters from house dust in China and the United States. Environ Sci Technol 45:3788–3794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. He RW, Li YZ, Xiang P, Li C, Zhou CY, Zhang SJ, Cui XY, Ma LQ (2016) Organophosphorus flame retardants and phthalate esters in indoor dust from different microenvironments: bioaccessibility and risk assessment. Chemosphere 150:528–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hsu NY, Lee CC, Wang JY, Li YC, Chang HW, Chen CY, Bornehag CG, Wu PC, Sundell J, Su HJ (2012) Predicted risk of childhood allergy, asthma, and reported symptoms using measured phthalate exposure in dust and urine. Indoor Air 22:186–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hsu NY, Liu YC, Lee CW, Lee CC, Su HJ (2017) Higher moisture content is associated with greater emissions of DEHP from PVC wallpaper. Environ Res 152:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hutter HP, Haluza D, Piegler K, Hohenblum P, Frohlich M, Scharf S, Uhl M, Damberger B, Tappler P, Kundi M, Wallner P, Moshammer H (2013) Semivolatile compounds in schools and their influence on cognitive performance of children. Int J Occup Med Env 26:628–635Google Scholar
  20. Itoh H, Yoshida K, Masunaga S (2007) Quantitative identification of unknown exposure pathways of phthalates based on measuring their metabolites in human urine. Environ Sci Technol 41:4542–4547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jeon S, Kim KT, Choi K (2016) Migration of DEHP and DINP into dust from PVC flooring products at different surface temperature. Sci Total Environ 547:441–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kang Y, Man YB, Cheung KC, Wong MH (2012) Risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible phthalate esters via indoor dust around the Pearl River Delta. Environ Sci Technol 46:8422–8430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kim S, Eom S, Kim HJ, Lee JJ, Choi G, Choi S, Kim S, Kim SY, Cho G, Kim YD, Suh E, Kim SK, Kim S, Kim GH, Moon HB, Park J, Kim S, Choi K, Eun SH (2018) Association between maternal exposure to major phthalates, heavy metals, and persistent organic pollutants, and the neurodevelopmental performances of their children at 1 to 2 years of age- CHECK cohort study. Sci Total Environ 624:377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koch HM, Wittassek M, Bruning T, Angerer J, Heudorf U (2011) Exposure to phthalates in 5–6 years old primary school starters in Germany — a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment. Int J Hyg Environ Health 214:188–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Langer S, Weschler CJ, Fischer A, Beko G, Toftum J, Clausen G (2010) Phthalate and pah concentrations in dust collected from Danish homes and daycare centers. Atmos Environ 44:2294–2301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee J, Lee JH, Kim CK, Thomsen M (2014) Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under existing chemical management systems: a comparative study of sources of childhood exposure in Korea and in Denmark. Environ Int 63:77–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li HL, Song WW, Zhang ZF, Ma WL, Gao CJ, Li J, Huo CY, Mohammed MOA, Liu LY, Kannan K, Li YF (2016) Phthalates in dormitory and house dust of northern Chinese cities: occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 565:496–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lin LY, Tsai MS, Chen MH, Ng S, Hsieh CJ, Lin CC, Lu FL, Hsieh WS, Chen PC (2018) Childhood exposure to phthalates and pulmonary function. Sci Total Environ 615:1282–1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu QT, Chen R, Mccarry BE, Diamond ML, Bahavar B (2003) Characterization of polar organic compounds in the organic film on indoor and outdoor glass windows. Environ Sci Technol 37:2340–2349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu R, Jian Z, Yang D, Pu Y, Yin L (2016) Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced reproductive toxicity involved in DNA damage-dependent oocyte apoptosis using alternative caenorhabditis elegans model. Toxicol Lett 258:S70–S71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Luongo G, Östman C (2016) Organophosphate and phthalate esters in settled dust from apartment buildings in Stockholm. Indoor Air 26:414–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ma WL, Subedi B, Kannan K (2014) The occurrence of bisphenol A, phthalates, parabens and other environmental phenolic compounds in house dust: A review. Curr Org Chem 18:2182–2199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mercier F, Gilles E, Saramito G, Glorennec P, Le BB (2014) A multi-residue method for the simultaneous analysis in indoor dust of several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1336:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. OEHHA (Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment) (2001) Proposition 65: Process for developing safe harbor numbers. The Office of Environmental Health Hazard AssessmentWeb. https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/crnr/2001safeharborprocess.pdf. Accessed 13 April 2019
  35. Pant N, Kumar G, Upadhyay AD, Patel DK, Gupta YK, Chaturvedi PK (2014) Reproductive toxicity of lead, cadmium, and phthalate exposure in men. Environ Sci Pollut R 21:11066–11074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sathyanarayana S, Grady R, Barrett ES, Redmon B, Nguyen RHN, Barthold JS, Bush NR, Swan SH (2016) First trimester phthalate exposure and male newborn genital anomalies. Environ Res 151:777–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Subedi B, Sullivan KD, Dhungana B (2017) Phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers in indoor dust from childcare facilities, salons, and homes across the USA. Environ Pollut 230:701–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. U.S. EPA. (2010) Human health risk assessment. Environmental Protection AgencyWeb. https://www.epa.gov/risk/human-health-risk-assessment. Accessed 10 Oct 2018
  39. U.S. EPA. (2011) Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Final Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-09/052FGoogle Scholar
  40. U.S. EPA. (2016) Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Environmental protection AgencyWeb. https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2018
  41. Wang XK, Tao W, Xu Y, Feng JT, Wang FH (2014) Indoor phthalate concentration and exposure in residential and office buildings in Xi’an, China. Atmos Environ 87:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang L, Gong M, Xu Y, Zhang Y (2017) Phthalates in dust collected from various indoor environments in Beijing, China and resulting non-dietary human exposure. Build Environ 124:315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang W, Leung AOW, Chu LH, Wong MH (2018) Phthalates contamination in China: Status, trends and human exposure — with an emphasis on oral intake. Environ Pollut 238:771–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Weschler CJ, Salthammer T, Fromme H (2008) Partitioning of phthalates among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust in indoor environments. Atmos Environ 42:1449–1460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Whitehead T, Metayer C, Buffler P, Rappaport SM (2011) Estimating exposures to indoor contaminants using residential dust. J Expo Sci Env Epid 21:549–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zarean M, Keikha M, Poursafa P, Khalighinejad P, Amin M, Kelishadi R (2016) A systematic review on the adverse health effects of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. Environ Sci Pollut R 23:24642–24693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang Q, Lu XM, Zhang XL, Sun YG, Zhu DM, Wang BL, Zhao RZ, Zhang ZD (2013) Levels of phthalate esters in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children in Nanjing, China. Atmos Environ 69:258–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps/School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringShihezi UniversityShiheziChina
  2. 2.The First Affiliated Hospital, School of MedicineShihezi UniversityShiheziChina

Personalised recommendations