Indoor phthalate concentrations in residences in Shihezi, China: implications for preschool children’s exposure and risk assessment
- 132 Downloads
Despite the risks associated with phthalate exposure, there are few studies emphasizing preschool children’s exposure to phthalates in residences in Northwest China. In this study, seven phthalates from indoor dust samples were measured in 50 residences in Shihezi, China. Preschool children’s exposure doses via non-dietary intake were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. Risk assessment was conducted by comparing the simulated exposure dose with benchmarks for reproductive toxicity and cancer specified in Proposition 65 of California. The detection frequencies for all selected phthalates were more than 75%, with the exception of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most principal compound in the dust samples (median = 455 μg/g and 462 μg/g in the bedroom and living room, respectively). The simulation displayed that the median DBP daily intake was 1.5–1.9 μg/day/kg for preschool children in Shihezi, which was considered a high level compared with similar studies around the world. The risk assessment indicated that almost all preschool children face potential reproductive risk due to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure, with medians of hazard index (HI) from 9.6 to 12.4 for all age groups. Therefore, from a children’s health perspective, attention should be paid to reducing indoor phthalate pollution and exposure in this area.
KeywordsPhthalates Indoor dust Preschool children Reproductive toxicity
We thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript.
Yahua Li and Jianjiang Lu conceived and designed the study; Yahua Li performed the experiments, interpreted the results, and wrote the manuscript. Zilong Liu, Yanbin Tong, and Li Zhou helped with the analysis of data and reviewed the manuscript. Jianjiang Lu and Xiaowen Yin supervised the project and critically revised the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted.
This work was financed by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21567024) and the Social Science Foundation of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (No. 18YB13).
Compliance with ethical standards
The present study involves human subjects. Consent has been obtained from subjects participating in this study, and the study has been reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee which is affiliated with the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002, China.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bekö G, Callesen M, Weschler CJ, Toftum J, Langer S, Sigsgaard T, Host A, Jensen TK, Clausen G (2015) Phthalate exposure through different pathways and allergic sensitization in preschool children with asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Environ Res 137:432–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Butte W, Heinzow B (2002) Pollutants in house dust as indicators of indoor contamination. Rev Environ Contam T 175:1–46Google Scholar
- Carpenter CP, Weil CS, Jr SH (1953) Chronic oral toxicity of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate of rats, guinea pigs, and dogs. Ama Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 8:219–226Google Scholar
- Fan GT, Xie JC, Yoshino H, Zhang HB, Li ZH, Li NP, Liu J, Lv Y, Zhu SW, Yanagi U, Hasegawa K, Kagi N, Zhang XJ, Liu JP (2018) Common SVOCs in house dust from urban dwellings with schoolchildren in six typical cities of China and associated non-dietary exposure and health risk assessment. Environ Int 120:431–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hutter HP, Haluza D, Piegler K, Hohenblum P, Frohlich M, Scharf S, Uhl M, Damberger B, Tappler P, Kundi M, Wallner P, Moshammer H (2013) Semivolatile compounds in schools and their influence on cognitive performance of children. Int J Occup Med Env 26:628–635Google Scholar
- Kim S, Eom S, Kim HJ, Lee JJ, Choi G, Choi S, Kim S, Kim SY, Cho G, Kim YD, Suh E, Kim SK, Kim S, Kim GH, Moon HB, Park J, Kim S, Choi K, Eun SH (2018) Association between maternal exposure to major phthalates, heavy metals, and persistent organic pollutants, and the neurodevelopmental performances of their children at 1 to 2 years of age- CHECK cohort study. Sci Total Environ 624:377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mercier F, Gilles E, Saramito G, Glorennec P, Le BB (2014) A multi-residue method for the simultaneous analysis in indoor dust of several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1336:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- OEHHA (Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment) (2001) Proposition 65: Process for developing safe harbor numbers. The Office of Environmental Health Hazard AssessmentWeb. https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/crnr/2001safeharborprocess.pdf. Accessed 13 April 2019
- U.S. EPA. (2010) Human health risk assessment. Environmental Protection AgencyWeb. https://www.epa.gov/risk/human-health-risk-assessment. Accessed 10 Oct 2018
- U.S. EPA. (2011) Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Final Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-09/052FGoogle Scholar
- U.S. EPA. (2016) Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Environmental protection AgencyWeb. https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2018