Advertisement

Comparison of floating-bed wetland and gravel filter amended with limestone and sawdust for sewage treatment

  • Fahim Raana Email author
  • Xiwu LuEmail author
  • Ghulam Jilani
  • Javid Hussain
  • Ittehad Hussain
Research Article
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

Advancements in the design and technology of constructed wetlands for efficient removal of wastewater contaminants are ever in progress to develop situation-based economical systems. Here, we entrenched two horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW) with either chemical, viz. limestone (HSFCW-LS) or organic, viz. sawdust (HSFCW-SD) substrates, and compared them with biological method, viz. growing of water spinach in floating-bed-constructed wetland (FBCW-WS) to enhance the performance of CWs. Same sewage wastewater was used as influent in each fortified CW replicated thrice. Sewage was replaced weekly, for a total of 12 weeks of experimentation. Sampling of raw sewage from influent was undertaken at the inlet in the beginning, and that of treated effluent from the outlet after a week of treatments. Quality of raw sewage used weekly during experimentation remained almost uniform and near to the wastewater standards. Cumulative data of treated wastewater depicted that the FBCW-WS achieved the highest performance in the removal of total nitrogen (TN), \( {\mathrm{NH}}_4^{+} \)–N, and total phosphorus (TP) with average removal efficiencies of 75.9, 90.5, and 94.3%, respectively. Whereas, HSFCW-SD performed better for \( {\mathrm{NO}}_3^{-} \)–N, FC, and TSS with corresponding removal efficiency of 77.5, 64.3, and 74.2% while HSFCW-LS showed average performance. This study concludes that performance of biological method of macrophyte cultivation (FBCW-WS) is significantly superior to chemical and organic substrates, so it could be more effective, economical, and sustainable approach for sewage treatment.

Keywords

Ipomoea aquatica Horizontal sub-surface flow Divergent substrates Nutrients removal efficiency Fecal coliform reduction Nitrification-denitrification 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The principal author is grateful to the government of the Peoples Republic of China for financing her postgraduate studies in the SEU, Nanjing.

Authors’ contribution

Raana Fahim and Xiwu Lu designed and conceived this project and arranged the experiment materials and analysis instruments. Raana Fahim performed experimental and analysis work, while Xiwu Lu supervised during the study. All authors have equal contribution in the data processing and write-up of this manuscript.

Funding information

This study is funded under the project “Major Science & Technology Projects of Water Pollution Control and Management in the Peoples Republic of China” through grant number 2017ZX07202004-002.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Data availability statement

The data (chemical analysis of sewage influent and effluent) used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author XIWU LU xiwulu@seu.edu.cn and principal author RAANA FAHIM raana.fahim@yahoo.com upon request.

References

  1. Abbasi H, Vasileva V, Lu X (2017) The influence of the ratio of nitrate to ammonium nitrogen on nitrogen removal in the economical growth of vegetation in hybrid constructed wetlands. Environments 4:24.  https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4010024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali H, Khan E, Sajad MA (2013) Phytoremediation of heavy metals-concepts and applications. Chemosphere 91:869–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almuktar SAAAN, Abed SN, Scholz M (2018) Wetlands for wastewater treatment and subsequent recycling of treated effluent: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:23595–23623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Babatunde AO, Zhao YQ (2009) Phosphorus removal in laboratory-scale unvegetated vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland systems using alum sludge as main substrate. Water Sci Technol 60:483–489.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2009.384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ballantine DJ, Tanner CC (2010) Substrate and filter materials to enhance phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands treating diffuse farm runoff: a review. New Zeal J Agric Res 53:71–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brix H, Schierup H-H (1990) Soil oxygenation in constructed reed beds: the role of macrophyte and soil-atmosphere interface oxygen transport. Constr Wetl Water Pollut Control 53–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-040784-5.50010-3
  7. Chen Y, Cheng J, Niu S, Kim Y (2013) Evaluation of the different filter media in vertical flow stormwater wetland. Desalin Water Treat 51:4097–4106.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.781106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Choudhury T, Robertson WD, Finnigan DS (2016) Suspended sediment and phosphorus removal in a woodchip filter system treating agricultural wash water. J Environ Qual 45:796.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2015.07.0380 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dordio AV, Teimão J, Ramalho I, Carvalho AJP, Candeias AJE (2007) Selection of a support matrix for the removal of some phenoxyacetic compounds in constructed wetlands systems. Sci Total Environ 380:237–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.02.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ji X, Jiang M, Zhang J, Jiang X, Zheng Z (2018) The interactions of algae-bacteria symbiotic system and its effects on nutrients removal from synthetic wastewater. Bioresour. Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.074
  11. Kadlec RH, Wallace SD (2009) Treatment wetlands, 2th ednGoogle Scholar
  12. Kern J, Idler C, Carlow G (2000) Removal of fecal coliforms and organic matter from dairy farm wastewater in a constructed wetland under changing climate conditions. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 35:1445–1461.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520009377046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kizito S, Lv T, Wu S, Ajmal Z, Luo H, Dong R (2017) Treatment of anaerobic digested effluent in biochar-packed vertical flow constructed wetland columns: role of media and tidal operation. Sci Total Environ 592:197–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Letlong.net (n.d.) Wuxi, Jiangsu, China. https://www.latlong.net/place/wuxi-jiangsu-china-13441.html. Accessed 21 Jan 2019
  15. Li CJ, Wan MH, Dong Y, Men ZY, Lin Y, Wu DY, Kong HN (2011) Treating surface water with low nutrients concentration by mixed substrates constructed wetlands. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 46:771–776.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2011.571632 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li X, Xiao Y, Ren W, Liu ZF, Shi JH, Quan ZX (2012) Abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in different types of soil in the Yangtze River estuary. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 13:769–782.  https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1200013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li H, Chi Z, Yan B, Cheng L, Li J (2017a) Nitrogen removal in wood chip combined substrate baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetlands: impact of matrix arrangement and intermittent aeration. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:5032–5038.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8227-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li H, Chi Z, Yan B, Cheng L, Li J (2017b) An innovative wood-chip-framework substrate used as slow-release carbon source to treat high-strength nitrogen wastewater. J Environ Sci (China) 51:275–283.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2016.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Luo P, Liu F, Zhang S, Li H, Yao R, Jiang Q, Xiao R, Wu J (2018) Nitrogen removal and recovery from lagoon-pretreated swine wastewater by constructed wetlands under sustainable plant harvesting management. Bioresour. Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.03.017
  20. Lu S, Zhang X, Wang J, Pei L (2016) Impacts of different media on constructed wetlands for rural household sewage treatment. J Clean Prod 127:325–330.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.03.166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Massoud MA, Tarhini A, Nasr JA (2009) Decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment and management: applicability in developing countries. J Environ Manag 90:652–659.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Meng P, Pei H, Hu W, Shao Y, Li Z (2014) How to increase microbial degradation in constructed wetlands: influencing factors and improvement measures. Bioresour Technol 157:316–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Papaevangelou V, Gikas GD, Tsihrintzis VA (2016) Effect of operational and design parameters on performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands Treating University campus wastewater. Water Resour Manag 30:5875–5899.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-016-1484-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Perkins J, Hunter C (2000) Removal of enteric bacteria in a surface flow constructed wetland in Yorkshire, England. Water Res 34:1941–1947.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(99)00333-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Singh R, Kaushik CP, Raghav AK (2016) No title comparing efficacy of down-flow and upflow vertical constructed wetlands for treatment of simulated dumpsite leachate. Imp J Interdiscip Res 2:942–945Google Scholar
  26. Smith E, Gordon R, Madani A, Stratton G (2005) Pathogen removal by agricultural constructed wetlands in cold climates. J Environ Inf 6:46–50.  https://doi.org/10.3808/jei.200500054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Steel R, Torri J, Dickey D (1997) Principles and procedures of statistics a biometrical approach. A Biometrical ApproachGoogle Scholar
  28. University of Minnosota (2016) Bulk Density and Particle Density Lab. Lab Man Soil SciGoogle Scholar
  29. Vohla C, Kõiv M, Bavor HJ, Chazarenc F, Mander Ü (2011) Filter materials for phosphorus removal from wastewater in treatment wetlands-a review. Ecol Eng 37:70–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vymazal J (2007) Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands. Sci Total Environ 380:48–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.09.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang, B., Wang Z, Jiang Y, Tan G, Xu N, Xu Y (2017) Enhanced power generation and wastewater treatment in sustainable biochar electrodes based bioelectrochemical system. Bioresour. Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.05.155
  32. WE Federation APA (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and WastewaterGoogle Scholar
  33. Wu H, Zhang J, Ngo HH, Guo W, Hu Z, Liang S, Fan J, Liu H (2015) A review on the sustainability of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: design and operation. Bioresour Technol 175:594–601.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.10.068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xu B, Wang X, Liu J, Wu J, Zhao Y, Cao W (2017) Improving urban stormwater runoff quality by nutrient removal through floating treatment wetlands and vegetation harvest. Sci Rep 7:7000.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-07439-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yang, Y., Zhao Y, Liu R, Morgan D (2018) Global development of various emerged substrates utilized in constructed wetlands. Bioresour. Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.03.085
  36. Zhai Y, Yang Q, Hou M (2015) The effects of saline water drip irrigation on tomato yield, quality, and blossom-end rot incidenceâ—a 3a case study in the South of China. PLoS One 10:e0142204.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhou X, Liang C, Jia L, Feng L, Wang R, Wu H (2018) An innovative biochar-amended substrate vertical flow constructed wetland for low C/N wastewater treatment: impact of influent strengths. Bioresour Technol 247:844–850.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, School of Energy and EnvironmentSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Soil SciencePMAS Arid Agriculture University RawalpindiRawalpindiPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Faculty of Life Sciences and InformaticsBalochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management SciencesQuettaPakistan

Personalised recommendations