Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19523–19539 | Cite as

Elimination performance of methylene blue, methyl violet, and Nile blue from aqueous media using AC/CoFe2O4 as a recyclable magnetic composite

  • Rauf Foroutan
  • Reza MohammadiEmail author
  • Bahman RamavandiEmail author
Research Article


The present paper describes the sono-assisted adsorption (sono-adsorption) of methylene blue (MB), methyl violet (MV), and Nile blue (NB) from aqueous solution by AC/CoFe2O4 magnetic composite. FT-IR, TGA-DTG, VSM, XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, Map, and Raman analysis were used to characterize the magnetic composite. The magnetization saturation value of AC/CoFe2O4 magnetic composite was determined to be 53.06 emu/g. Dye sono-adsorption efficiency was increased by increasing adsorbent dose, pH value, and contact time, but not dye concentration. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intra-particle diffusion models were used to study the kinetic behavior of the cationic dye sono-adsorption. The sono-adsorption kinetics was reasonably followed by pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.998). The results showed that the Freundlich model (R2 > 0.976) was more able to describe the sono-adsorption equilibrium behavior than Langmuir, D-R, and Scatchard models. The maximum sono-adsorption capacity of NB, MV, and MB was determined as 86.24, 83.90, and 87.48 mg/g, respectively. Based on the parameters derived from isotherm modeling (RL, n, and E), the sono-adsorption process of cationic dyes is desirable and physical. An increase in NaCl concentration reduced the sono-adsorption efficiency for all dyes. Also, the adsorption-desorption of AC/CoFe2O4 magnetic was studied up to 10 stages, and it was confirmed that the sono-adsorption efficiency is acceptable up to the eight stage. AC/CoFe2O4 magnetic composite is, therefore, an affordable and recyclable adsorbent to remove the molecule of NB, MV, and MB dyes from aqueous media.


Activated carbon/cobalt ferrite Cationic dye Aqueous media Ultrasonic Sono-adsorption 


Funding information

This work was funded by the University of Tabriz (Grant No. UTab. 96122).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Organic and Biochemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  2. 2.Systems Environmental Health and Energy Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research InstituteBushehr University of Medical SciencesBushehrIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health and NutritionBushehr University of Medical SciencesBushehrIran

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