Advertisement

Removal of chlorpheniramine and variations of nitrosamine formation potentials in municipal wastewaters by adsorption onto the GO-Fe3O4

  • Chih-Hsien Lin
  • Chi-Min Li
  • Chun-Hu Chen
  • Wei-Hsiang ChenEmail author
Research Article
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

Chlorpheniramine is a pharmaceutical pollutant and a precursor of carcinogenic nitrosamines during disinfection/oxidation. In our previous study, graphene oxide coated with magnetite (GO-Fe3O4) was capable of removing chlorpheniramine in deionized water by adsorption. This study investigated the removal of chlorpheniramine and its nitrosamine formation potentials (FPs) by adsorption onto magnetic GO-Fe3O4, with respect to the influence by using real municipal wastewaters as the background. In the results, the adsorption performances of chlorpheniramine in wastewaters decreased in the order: GO-Fe3O4 suspension > GO-Fe3O4 particles > activated carbon. Chlorpheniramine adsorptions on GO-Fe3O4 particles and activated carbon were reduced by using real wastewaters as the background, whereas chlorpheniramine adsorption on GO-Fe3O4 suspension was enhanced due to the effects of surface charge on GO-Fe3O4 and ionic strength variation in water. The fittings of adsorption isotherms indicated that the wastewater background reduced the surface heterogeneity of GO-Fe3O4 suspension and improved the adsorption performance. Appreciable removal efficiencies of NDMA and other nitrosamine FPs were observed when GO-Fe3O4 particles were added in real wastewaters. However, when chlorpheniramine was present in wastewaters, chlorpheniramine adsorption and degradation reaction simultaneously occurred on the surface of GO-Fe3O4, increasing NDMA and other nitrosamine FPs in wastewaters after GO-Fe3O4 addition for chlorpheniramine adsorption. The assumption was further demonstrated by observing the NDMA-FP increase during chlorpheniramine adsorption on GO-Fe3O4 in deionized water. GO-Fe3O4 is a potential adsorbent for chlorpheniramine removal. Nevertheless, the low treatment efficiencies at high doses limit its application for nitrosamine FP adsorptions in real wastewaters.

Keywords

Graphene oxide Magnetite Chlorpheniramine Nitrosamine Formation potential Adsorption 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Prof. Chun-Hu Chen of National Sun Yat-sen University for valuable assistance and helpful suggestions for GO preparation.

Funding

This research was conducted under the auspices of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) under a contact number (MOST 105-2633-E-110-001 and MOST 106-2621-M-110-003). Additional financial support from the Our Fellow Man Alliance (OFMA) in Taiwan is greatly appreciated.

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclaimer

Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the MOST.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5278_MOESM1_ESM.docx (637 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 636 kb)

References

  1. Apul OG, Wang QL, Zhou Y, Karanfil T (2013) Adsorption of aromatic organic contaminants by graphene nanosheets: comparison with carbon nanotubes and activated carbon. Water Res 47:1648–1654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bond T, Templeton MR, Graham N (2012) Precursors of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water-a critical review and analysis. J Hazard Mater 235:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boxall ABA (2004) The environmental side effects of medication - how are human and veterinary medicines in soils and water bodies affecting human and environmental health? EMBO Rep 5:1110–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carter MC, Kilduff JE, Weber WJ (1995) Site energy-distribution analysis of preloaded adsorbents. Environ Sci Technol 29:1773–1780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang YL, Yang ST, Liu JH, Dong E, Wang YW, Cao AN, Liu YF, Wang HF (2011) In vitro toxicity evaluation of graphene oxide on A549 cells. Toxicol Lett 200:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen S, Zhu J, Wu X, Han Q, Wang X (2010) Graphene Oxide-MnO2 Nanocomposites for Supercapacitors. ACS Nano 4:2822–2830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen C, Leavey S, Krasner SW, Suffet IH (2014) Applying polarity rapid assessment method and ultrafiltration to characterize NDMA precursors in wastewater effluents. Water Res 57:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen WH, Yang YC, Wang YH, Li CM, Lin KY, Lou JC (2015) Effect of molecular characteristics on the formation of nitrosamines during chlor(am)ination of phenylurea herbicides. Environ Sci Processes Impacts 17:2092–2100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen WH, Wang CY, Huang TH (2016) Formation and fates of nitrosamines and their formation potentials from a surface water source to drinking water treatment plants in southern Taiwan. Chemosphere 161:546–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen WH, Huang TH, Wang CY (2018) Impact of pre-oxidation on nitrosamine formation from a source to drinking water: a perspective on cancer risk assessment. Process Saf Environ Prot 113:424–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chung K, Lee C-H, Yi G-C (2010) Transferable GaN layers grown on ZnO-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices. Science 330:655–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fan Z, Yan J, Wei T, Zhi L, Ning G, Li T, Wei F (2011) Asymmetric supercapacitors based on graphene/MnO2 and activated carbon nanofiber electrodes with high power and energy density. Adv Funct Mater 21:2366–2375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fan LL, Luo CN, Sun M, Qiu HM, Li XJ (2013) Synthesis of magnetic beta-cyclodextrin-chitosan/graphene oxide as nanoadsorbent and its application in dye adsorption and removal. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 103:601–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Geim AK, Novoselov KS (2007) The rise of graphene. Nat Mater 6:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hanigan D, Zhang J, Herckes P, Krasner SW, Chen C, Westerhoff P (2012) Adsorption of N-Nitrosodimethylamine precursors by powdered and granular activated carbon. Environ Sci Technol 46:12630–12639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. IARC (1987) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs volumes 1 to 42. International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization (WHO), Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  17. Kadmi Y, Favier L, Wolbert D (2015) N-nitrosamines, emerging disinfection by-products of health concern: an overview of occurrence, mechanisms of formation, control and analysis in water. Water Sci Technol Water Supply 15:11–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Krasner SW, Mitch WA, McCurry DL, Hanigan D, Westerhoff P (2013) Formation, precursors, control, and occurrence of nitrosamines in drinking water: a review. Water Res 47:4433–4450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee J, Chae HR, Won YJ, Lee K, Lee CH, Lee HH, Kim IC, Lee JM (2013) Graphene oxide nanoplatelets composite membrane with hydrophilic and antifouling properties for wastewater treatment. J Membr Sci 448:223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li Z, Chang P-H, Jean J-S, Jiang W-T, Hong H (2011) Mechanism of chlorpheniramine adsorption on Ca-montmorillonite. Colloids Surf a-Physicochemical Eng Asp 385:213–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li J, Zhang S, Chen C, Zhao G, Yang X, Li J, Wang X (2012) Removal of Cu(II) and fulvic acid by graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 4:4991–5000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li CM, Chen CH, Chen WH (2017) Different influences of nanopore dimension and pH between chlorpheniramine adsorptions on graphene oxide-iron oxide suspension and particle. Chem Eng J 307:447–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lin YX, Xu S, Jia L (2013) Fast and highly efficient tetracyclines removal from environmental waters by graphene oxide functionalized magnetic particles. Chem Eng J 225:679–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu YD, Selbes M, Zeng CC, Zhong RG, Karanfil T (2014) Formation mechanism of NDMA from ranitidine, trimethylamine, and other tertiary amines during chloramination: a computational study. Environ Sci Technol 48:8653–8663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Luo YB, Shi ZG, Gao QA, Feng YQ (2011) Magnetic retrieval of graphene: extraction of sulfonamide antibiotics from environmental water samples. J Chromatogr A 1218:1353–1358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lv J, Wang L, Song Y, Li Y (2015) N-nitrosodimethylamine formation from ozonation of chlorpheniramine: influencing factors and transformation mechanism. J Hazard Mater 299:584–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mitch WA, Oelker GL, Hawley EL, Deeb RA, Sedlak DL (2005) Minimization of NDMA formation during chlorine disinfection of municipal wastewater by application of pre-formed chloramines. Environ Eng Sci 22:882–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moreno RA, Oliveira-Silva D, Sverdloff CE, Borges BC, Galvinas PAR, Astigarraga RB, Borges NC (2010) Determination of chlorpheniramine in human plasma by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS: application to a dexchlorpheniramine comparative bioavailability study. Biomed Chromatogr 24:774–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Padhye L, Wang P, Karanfil T, Huang C-H (2010) Unexpected role of activated carbon in promoting transformation of secondary amines to N-nitrosamines. Environ Sci Technol 44:4161–4168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Padhye LP, Hertzberg B, Yushin G, Huang C-H (2011) N-nitrosamines formation from secondary amines by nitrogen fixation on the surface of activated carbon. Environ Sci Technol 45:8368–8376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Roberts J, Kumar A, Du J, Hepplewhite C, Ellis DJ, Christy AG, Beavis SG (2016) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Australia’s largest inland sewage treatment plant, and its contribution to a major Australian river during high and low flow. Sci Total Environ 541:1625–1637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sacher F, Schmidt C, Lee C, von Gunten U (2008) Strategies for minimizing nitrosamine formation during disinfection. Awwa Research Foundation, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  33. Schlautman MA, Morgan JJ (1993) Effects of aqueous chemistry on the binding of polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons by dissolved humic materials. Environ Sci Technol 27:961–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schwarzenbach RP, Gschwend PM, Imboden DM (2003) Environmental organic chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  35. Shah AD, Krasner SW, Lee CFT, von Gunten U, Mitch WA (2012) Trade-offs in disinfection byproduct formation associated with precursor preoxidation for control of N-nitrosodimethylamine formation. Environ Sci Technol 46:4809–4818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shen R, Andrews SA (2011a) Demonstration of 20 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as nitrosamine precursors during chloramine disinfection. Water Res 45:944–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shen RQ, Andrews SA (2011b) NDMA formation kinetics from three pharmaceuticals in four water matrices. Water Res 45:5687–5694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Dommett GHB, Kohlhaas KM, Zimney EJ, Stach EA, Piner RD, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2006) Graphene-based composite materials. Nature 442:282–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Takeuchi H, Yamashita N, Nakada N, Tanaka H (2018) Removal characteristics of N-nitrosamines and their precursors by pilot-scale integrated membrane Systems for Water Reuse. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091960
  40. USEPA (2004) Method 521: determination of nitrosamines in drinking water by solid phase extraction and capillary column gas chromatography with large volume injection and chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). USEPA, Cincinnati, OhioGoogle Scholar
  41. USEPA (2017): Integrated risk information system (IRIS). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)Google Scholar
  42. Uzun H, Kim D, Karanfil T (2017) The removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential in drinking water treatment plants. J Am Water Works Assoc 109:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang WF, Yu JW, An W, Yang M (2016) Occurrence and profiling of multiple nitrosamines in source water and drinking water of China. Sci Total Environ 551:489–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wu Y, Li Z, Chen J, Yu C, Huang X, Zhao C, Duan L, Yang Y, Lu W (2015) Graphene nanosheets decorated with tunable magnetic nanoparticles and their efficiency of wastewater treatment. Mater Res Bull 68:234–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xia C, Lv GC, Mei LF, Song KN, Li ZH, Wang XY, Xing XB, Xu B (2014) Removal of Chlorpheniramine from water by Birnessite. Water Air Soil Pollut 225Google Scholar
  46. Yang L, Chen ZL, Shen JM, Xu ZZ, Liang H, Tian JY, Ben Y, Zhai X, Shi WX, Li GB (2009) Reinvestigation of the nitrosamine-formation mechanism during ozonation. Environ Sci Technol 43:5481–5487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yang Z, Yan H, Yang H, Li HB, Li AM, Cheng RS (2013) Flocculation performance and mechanism of graphene oxide for removal of various contaminants from water. Water Res 47:3037–3046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang Y, Li H, Pan L, Lu T, Sun Z (2009) Capacitive behavior of graphene-ZnO composite film for supercapacitors. J Electroanal Chem 634:68–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhao J, Wang Z, White JC, Xing B (2014) Graphene in the aquatic environment: adsorption, dispersion, toxicity and transformation. Environ Sci Technol 48:9995–10009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhou WJ, Chen CP, Lou LJ, Yang Q, Zhu LZ (2014) Formation potential of nine nitrosamines from corresponding secondary amines by chloramination. Chemosphere 95:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental EngineeringNational Sun Yat-sen UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryNational Sun Yat-sen UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations