Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19445–19452 | Cite as

Distinctive fingerprints of genotoxicity induced by As, Cr, Cd, and Ni in a freshwater fish

  • Meenu Singh
  • Huma Khan
  • Yeshvandra Verma
  • Suresh Vir Singh RanaEmail author
Research Article


Genotoxicity of three toxic elements (chromium, cadmium, nickel) and a metalloid (arsenic) has been studied in a freshwater fish, Channa punctatus using micronuclei (MN) test, comet assay, and erythrocyte nuclear alterations (ENAs) as fingerprints of genotoxicity. These tests yielded different results suggesting involvement of different mechanisms for their genotoxicity. While highest frequency of blebbed nuclei was observed in chromium-treated fish (6.5 ± 0.76), lowest was observed in cadmium-treated fish (4.0 ± 1.0). Maximum number of notched nuclei was recorded in arsenic-treated fish (5.5 ± 1.15) whereas highest numbers of lobed nuclei were found in cadmium-treated fish (4.5 ± 0.13). These differences might be attributed to selective bioaccumulation and chemodynamics of each element. Other parameters used to determine genotoxicity viz.: lipid peroxidation and DNA damage also suggested different mechanisms of their genotoxicity. It is suggested that an integrative approach, using a battery of tests for determining genotoxicity, should be made while making environmental health risk assessment and ecotoxicological studies of these toxic elements.


Genotoxicity Comet assay Micronuclei test Erythrocyte nuclear alterations Fish 



One of the authors (MS) is thankful to University Grant Commission, New Delhi, for financial assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meenu Singh
    • 1
  • Huma Khan
    • 1
  • Yeshvandra Verma
    • 1
  • Suresh Vir Singh Rana
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ToxicologyChaudhary Charan Singh UniversityMeerutIndia

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