Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18856–18865 | Cite as

Protective effects of kefir against deltamethrin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

  • Emna El Golli-Bennour
  • Rim Timoumi
  • Emna Annaibi
  • Moncef Mokni
  • Asma Omezzine
  • Hassen Bacha
  • Salwa Abid-EssefiEmail author
Research Article


Deltamethrine (DLM) is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects. Widely used for agricultural and veterinary purposes, its human and animal exposure occurs by ingestion of contaminated water and food and leads to serious health problems. Kefir is fermented milk with numerous health favors counting restorative properties of bacterial flora, immune system stimulation, cholesterol reduction, as well as anti-mutagenic and anti-tumor properties. The present study was undertaken to examine the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of kefir against DLM toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. DLM-treated animals revealed a significant increase in serum biochemical parameters as well as hepatic protein and lipid oxidations but caused an inhibition in antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, we have observed an increase in hepatocyte DNA damages. This toxic effect was confirmed by histological study. Kefir administration normalized the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (T bilirubin), and cholesterol. It also reduced DLM-induced protein carbonyl (PC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) formations. Furthermore, Kefir treatment restored catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The co-treatment as well as the pre-treatment by kefir showed an improvement of oxidative status as well as suppressed inflammation and DNA damages. However, the pre-treatment seems to be the most efficient. Therefore, it could be concluded that kefir is a natural product able to protect against the hepatotoxic effects of DLM by its free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity.


Deltamethrine Kefir Oxidative stress Hepatotoxicity 



This research was supported by “Le Ministère Tunisien de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique” through the Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Substances Biologiquement Compatible.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emna El Golli-Bennour
    • 1
  • Rim Timoumi
    • 1
  • Emna Annaibi
    • 1
  • Moncef Mokni
    • 2
  • Asma Omezzine
    • 3
  • Hassen Bacha
    • 1
  • Salwa Abid-Essefi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory for Research on Biologically Compatible CompoundsFaculty of Dental MedicineMonastirTunisia
  2. 2.Department of Anatomic Pathology and HistologyUniversity Hospital Farhat HachedSousseTunisia
  3. 3.LR12SP11, Biochemistry DepartmentSahloul University HospitalSousseTunisia

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