Protective effects of kefir against deltamethrin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
Deltamethrine (DLM) is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects. Widely used for agricultural and veterinary purposes, its human and animal exposure occurs by ingestion of contaminated water and food and leads to serious health problems. Kefir is fermented milk with numerous health favors counting restorative properties of bacterial flora, immune system stimulation, cholesterol reduction, as well as anti-mutagenic and anti-tumor properties. The present study was undertaken to examine the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of kefir against DLM toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. DLM-treated animals revealed a significant increase in serum biochemical parameters as well as hepatic protein and lipid oxidations but caused an inhibition in antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, we have observed an increase in hepatocyte DNA damages. This toxic effect was confirmed by histological study. Kefir administration normalized the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (T bilirubin), and cholesterol. It also reduced DLM-induced protein carbonyl (PC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) formations. Furthermore, Kefir treatment restored catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The co-treatment as well as the pre-treatment by kefir showed an improvement of oxidative status as well as suppressed inflammation and DNA damages. However, the pre-treatment seems to be the most efficient. Therefore, it could be concluded that kefir is a natural product able to protect against the hepatotoxic effects of DLM by its free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity.
KeywordsDeltamethrine Kefir Oxidative stress Hepatotoxicity
This research was supported by “Le Ministère Tunisien de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique” through the Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Substances Biologiquement Compatible.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Abdou RH, Abdel-Daim MM (2014) Alpha-lipoic acid improves acute deltamethrin-induced toxicity in rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 92: 773-779.Google Scholar
- Altuntas S, Hapoglu H (2019) 7-Kefir-type drinks from whey. Non-alcoholic beverages: The Science of Beverages 6:185–226Google Scholar
- Banath JP, Kim A, Olive P (2002) Overnight lysis improves the efficiency of DNA damage detection in the alkaline comet assay. Radiat Res 1155:564–571Google Scholar
- Bensmira M, Nsabimana C, Jiang B (2010) Effects of fermentation conditions and homogenization pressure on the rheological properties of kefir. Food Sci Technol 43:1180–1184Google Scholar
- Clairbone A (1985) Catalase activity. Handbook of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research. CRC, Press, Boca Raton FL, pp 283–284Google Scholar
- El-Maghraby S (2007) Metabolism of deltamethrin in rats. Biomed Environ Sci 20:212–216Google Scholar
- Farnworth ER (2005) Kefir—a complex probiotic. Food Sci Technol Bull: Functional Foods 2:1–17Google Scholar
- Lopez-Pedrera C, Barbarroja N, Jimenez-Gomez Y, Collantes-Estevez E, Aguirre MA, Cuadrado MJ (2016) Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis associated with anti-phospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus: new therapeutic approaches. Rheumatology (Oxford) 55:2096–2108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mehlhorn H, Schumacher B, Jatzlau A, Abdel-Ghaffar F, Al-Rasheid KA, Klimpel S, Pohle H (2011) Efficacy of deltamethrin (Butox(R) 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep. Parasitol Res 108:963–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pérez JJ, Williams MK, Weerasekera G, Smith K, Whyatt RM, Needham LL, Barr DB (2010) Measurement of pyrethroid, organophosphorus, and carbamate insecticides in human plasma using isotope dilution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B 878:2554–2562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pizzino G, Irrera N, Cucinotta M, Pallio G, Mannino F, Arcoraci V, Squadrito F, Altavilla D, Bitto A (2017) Oxidative stress: harms and benefits for human health. Oxidative Med Cell Longev 2017:8416763Google Scholar
- Seo KH, Kim H, Chon JW, Kim DH, Nah SY, Arvik T, Yokoyama W (2015) Flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour supplementation ameliorates diet-induced visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance via altered adipose tissue gene expression. J Funct Foods 17:881–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shukla Y, Yadav A, Arora A (2002) Carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic potential of 646 cypermethrin on mouse skin. Sci Irel 182:33–41Google Scholar
- Tos-Luty S, Haratym-Maj A, Latuszynska J, Obuchowska-Przebirowska D, TokarskaRodak M (2001) Oral toxicity of deltamethrin and fenvalerate in Swiss mice. Ann Agric Environ Med 8:245–254Google Scholar