Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 17986–17995 | Cite as

The evaluation of resistance to Co 2+ of lawn plant at seedling stage and its concentration property at adult stage

  • Chifu Zhuo
  • Xiaoming ChenEmail author
  • Xianghui Zhang
  • Chen Ruan
  • Hao Chen
  • Dan Wang
  • Xuegang Luo
Environmental Pollution and Energy Management


In order to evaluate the resistance of lawn plant to Co2+ at germination stage and discuss its concentration property at adult stage, four kinds of lawn plant which have some growth advantages in Co2+ polluted environment were selected as experimental materials in this research. They are tall fescue, timothy grass, inflorescences, and annual ryegrass. The results show that the evaluation of resistance to Co2+ of tall fescue’s seed is the highest; the evaluation of resistance to Co2+ of annual ryegrass seed is the lowest. The low consistence Co2+ could improve the seed germination. With Co2+ concentration increase, the accumulation coefficient of four plants increased at first and decreased later; the accumulation coefficient of underground portion is higher than the accumulation coefficient of aboveground; with Co2+ concentration increase, the transfer coefficient of four plants have a remarkable decline. In these plants, the accumulation coefficient of tall fescue and annual ryegrass is bigger than other two plants. As the concentration of Co2+ treatment increased to 100 mg/kg, the aboveground enrichment of Co2+ in F. elata reached 75 mg/kg, followed by L. multiflorum (68.9 mg/kg), P. pratense (48.8 mg/kg), and D. glomerata (27.2 mg/kg).The highest underground enrichment of Co2+ in F. elata reached 836.46 mg/kg, in contrast to the lowest underground enrichment in D. glomerata, 264.67 mg/kg. It shows that fescue and annual ryegrass have a better enrichment property to Co2+ and have a better prospect for the treatment of cobalt-contaminated soil. This research could provide some scientific basis and main technical approach for the soil contaminated by Co2+.


Bioremediation Cobalt enrichment Cobalt tolerance Heavy metal contamination Lawn plant 



The National Defense Science and Technology Foundation of China (Grant No. 16ZG6101), the Major State Development Program of China (973 Program, No. 2014CB846003), Sichuan Province Foundation (Grant No. 18YYJC0927), and State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian (SKLNBC2015–04) supported the study. We thank Dr. Imran Ali for his language help.

Authors’ contributions

Chifu Zhuo had finished the data analysis and wrote manuscript in English. Xianghui Zhang had finished effects of Co2+ stress on relative GR and GE of four lawn plants; Chen Ruan had finished Co2+ enrichment characteristics of four lawn plants; Hao Chen had finished the Co2+ content analysis; Dan Wang had finished effects of Co2+ stress on seedling height and biomass of lawn plants; Xuegang Luo had directed assessment for Co2+ removal capacity; Xiaoming Chen’s duty was to direct the research and write manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chifu Zhuo
    • 1
  • Xiaoming Chen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xianghui Zhang
    • 1
  • Chen Ruan
    • 1
  • Hao Chen
    • 3
  • Dan Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xuegang Luo
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Life Science and EngineeringSouthwest University of Science and TechnologyMianyangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Discipline Laboratory for National Defense ChinaSouthwest University of Science and TechnologyMianyangPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Sichuan Institute of Atomic EnergyChengduChina

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