Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19606–19614 | Cite as

Resuspension of settled atmospheric particulate matter on plant leaves determined by wind and leaf surface characteristics

  • Guiling Zheng
  • Peng LiEmail author
Research Article


Atmospheric particulate matter (APM) is temporarily settled on the leaf surface of plants and will return to the air via the resuspension process under certain meteorological conditions. How leaf surface characteristics affect the resuspension of settled APM on the leaf surface has been rarely studied. Therefore, the resuspension of APM after settling on plant leaves was analyzed using four common urban greening species, including Prunus triloba, Platanus acerifolia, Lonicera maackii, and Cercis chinensis. The results show that the leaf hair density has a significantly positive correlation with the maximum particulate matter (PM) retention and natural PM retention (p < 0.05). Under the same wind speed, the proportions of the resuspended PM that settled on the leaf surfaces of the four plant species increase with the wind blowing time. During the same wind blowing time, the resuspension rate of the settled PM on leaf surfaces of P. triloba, P. acerifolia, and L. maackii increase with the wind speed. The leaf hair and stomatal density is negatively correlated to the resuspension rate of PM under the wind speed of 1 m s−1 (p < 0.05), and the stomatal density is also negatively correlated to the resuspension rate of PM under the wind speed of 5 m s−1 for 10 min or 20 min (p < 0.05). However, as the wind speed further increase, the leaf characteristics are no longer correlated to the resuspension rate of PM (p > 0.05). These results indicate that when the wind force (wind speed + wind blowing time) is small, the stomatal density and leaf hair density have a significant effect on APM resuspension. When the wind force is large, the influence of leaf surface structure on APM resuspension becomes less profound. APM resuspension is comprehensively affected by the external wind and the leaf surface characteristics, and these two factors jointly determine the fate of the PM after it settles on leaves.


Resuspension Leaf hair Stomata PM retention capacity Air pollution 


Funding information

This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571472, 41475132).


  1. Aboal JR, Pérez-Llamazares A, Carballeira A, Giordano S, Fernández JA (2011) Should moss samples used as biomonitors of atmospheric contamination be washed? Atmos Environ 45:6837–6840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ares A, Aboal JR, Carballeira A, Giordano S, Adamo P, Fernández JA (2012) Moss bag biomonitoring: a methodological review. Sci Total Environ 432:143–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beckett KP, Freer-Smith PH, Taylor G (1998) Urban woodlands: their role in reducing the effects of particulate pollution. Environ Pollut 99(3):347–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boor BE, Siegel JA, Novoselac A (2013) Monolayer and multilayer particle deposits on hard surfaces: literature review and implications for particle resuspension in the indoor environment. Aerosol Sci Technol 47(8):831–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fernández V, Sancho-Knapik D, Guzmán P, Peguero-Pina J, Gil L, Karabourniotis G, Khayet M, Fasseas C, Heredia-Guerrero JA, Heredia A, Gil-Pelegrin E (2014) Wettability, polarity and water absorption of Holm oak leaves: effect of leaf side and age. Plant Physiol 166(1):168–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fernández J, Boquete M, Carballeira A, Aboal J (2015) A critical review of protocols for moss biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition: sampling and sample preparation. Sci Total Environ 517:132–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Giess P, Goddard AJH, Shaw G, Allen D (1994) Resuspension of monodisperse particles from short grass swards: a wind tunnel study. J Aerosol Sci 25(5):843–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gradoń L (2009) Resuspension of particles from surfaces: technological, environmental and pharmaceutical aspects. Adv Powder Technol 20(1):17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Henry C, Minier JP (2014) Progress in particle resuspension from rough surfaces by turbulent flows. Prog Energy Combust Sci 45(4):1–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hinds WC (1999) Aerosol technology: properties, behavior, and measurement of airborne particles. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Hwang HJ, Yook SJ, Ahn KH (2011) Experimental investigation of submicron and ultrafine soot particle removal by tree leaves. Atmos Environ 45(38):6987–6994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ibrahim AH, Dunn PF, Brach RM (2003) Microparticle detachment from surfaces exposed to turbulent air flow: controlled experiments and modeling. J Aerosol Sci 34:765–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiang Y, Matsusaka S, Masuda H, Qian Y (2008) Characterizing the effect of substrate surface roughness on particle-wall interaction with the airflow method. Powder Technol 186:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kardel F, Wuyts K, Babanezhad M, Vitharana UW, Wuytack T, Potters G (2010) Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L. Environ Pollut 158(3):788–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kassab AS, Ugaz VM, King MD, Hassan YA (2013) High resolution study of micrometer particle detachment on different surfaces. Aerosol Sci Technol 47:351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim Y, Wellum G, Mello K, Strawhecker KE, Thoms R, Giaya A, Wyslouzil BE (2016) Effects of relative humidity and particle and surface properties on particle resuspension rates. Aerosol Sci Technol 50(4):339–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Leonard RJ, Mcarthur C, Hochuli DF (2016) Particulate matter deposition on roadside plants and the importance of leaf trait combinations. Urban For Urban Green 20:249–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liang D, Ma C, Wang YQ, Wang YJ, Zhao CX (2016) Quantifying PM2.5 capture capability of greening trees based on leaf factors analyzing. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(21):21176–21186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu L, Guan DS, Peart MR, Wang G, Zhang H, Li ZW (2013) The dust retention capacities of urban vegetation-a case study of Guangzhou, South China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20(9):6601–6610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu J, Cao Z, Zou S, Liu H, Hai X, Wang S, Duan J, Xi B, Yan G, Zhang S, Jia Z (2018) An investigation of the leaf retention capacity, efficiency and mechanism for atmospheric particulate matter of five greening tree species in Beijing, China. Sci Total Environ 616-617:417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Loosmore GA (2003) Evaluation and development of models for resuspension of aerosols at short times after deposition. Atmos Environ 37:639–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mo L, Ma Z, Xu Y, Sun F, Lun X, Liu X, Chen J, Yu XX (2015) Assessing the capacity of plant species to accumulate particulate matter in Beijing, China. PLoS One 10(10):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mukai C, Siegel JA, Novoselac A (2009) Impact of airflow characteristics on particle resuspension from indoor surfaces. Aerosol Sci Technol 43:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Neinhuis C, Barthlott W (1998) Seasonal changes of leaf surface contamination in Beech, Oak, and Ginkgo in relation to leaf micromorphology and wettability. New Phytol 138(1):91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nicholson KW (1993) Wind tunnel experiments on the resuspension of particulate material. Atmos Environ 27:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ould-Dada Z, Baghini NM (2001) Resuspension of small particles from tree surfaces. Atmos Environ 35(22):3799–3809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pérez-Llamazares A, Fernández JA, Carballeira A, Aboal JR (2011) Sequential elution technique applied to cryptogams: a literature review. J Bryol 33:267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Qian J, Ferro AR (2008) Resuspension of dust particles in a chamber and associated environmental factors. Aerosol Sci Technol 42(7):566–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Qian J, Peccia J, Ferro AR (2014) Walking-induced particle resuspension in indoor environments. Atmos Environ 89:464–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rai A, Kulshreshtha K, Srivastava PK, Mohanty CS (2010) Leaf surface structure alterations due to particulate pollution in some common plants. Environmentalist 30(1):18–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ram SS, Majumder S, Chaudhuri P, Chanda S, Santra SC, Maiti PK (2014) Plant canopies: bio-monitor and trap for re-suspended dust particulates contaminated with heavy metals. Mitig Adapt Strat Global Change 19(5):499–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Salimifard P, Rim D, Gomes C, Kremer P, Freihaut JD (2017) Resuspension of biological particles from indoor surfaces: effects of humidity and air swirl. Sci Total Environ 583:241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Song Y, Maher BA, Li F, Wang X, Sun X, Zhang H (2015) Particulate matter deposited on leaf of five evergreen species in Beijing, China: source identification and size distribution. Atmos Environ 105(1):53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Spagnuolo V, Giordano S, Pérez-Llamazares A, Ares A, Carballeira A, Fernández JA, Aboal JR (2013) Distinguishing metal bioconcentration from PM in moss tissue: testing methods of removing particles attached to the moss surface. Sci Total Environ 463-464:727–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Speak AF, Rothwell JJ, Lindley SJ, Smith CL (2012) Urban particulate pollution reduction by four species of green roof vegetation in a UK city. Atmos Environ 61:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sun X, Li H, Guo X, Sun Y, Li S (2018) Capacity of six shrub species to retain atmospheric particulates with different diameters. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(3):2643–2650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tomašević M, Vukmirović Z, Rajšić S, Tasić M, Stevanović B (2005) Characterization of trace metal particles deposited on some deciduous tree leaves in an urban area. Chemosphere 61(6):753–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wood RA, Burchett MD, Alquezar R, Orwell RL, Tarran J, Torpy F (2006) The potted-plant microcosm substantially reduces indoor air VOC pollution: office field-study. Water Air Soil Pollut 175(1-4):163–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang XY, Ahmadi G, Qian J, Ferro A (2008) Particle detachment, resuspension and transport due to human walking in indoor environments. J Adhes Sci Technol 22(5-6):591–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Resource and EnvironmentQingdao Agricultural UniversityQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations