Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18565–18582 | Cite as

Does globalization increase the ecological footprint? Empirical evidence from Malaysia

  • Zahoor AhmedEmail author
  • Zhaohua Wang
  • Faisal Mahmood
  • Muhammad Hafeez
  • Nazakat Ali
Research Article


This study focuses to investigate the relationship between globalization and the ecological footprint for Malaysia from 1971 to 2014. The results of the Bayer and Hanck cointegration test and the ARDL bound test show the existence of cointegration among variables. The findings disclose that globalization is not a significant determinant of the ecological footprint; however, it significantly increases the ecological carbon footprint. Energy consumption and economic growth stimulate the ecological footprint and carbon footprint in Malaysia. Population density reduces the ecological footprint and carbon footprint. Further, financial development mitigates the ecological footprint. The causality results disclose the feedback hypothesis between energy consumption and economic growth in the long run and short run.


Ecological footprint Ecological carbon footprint Globalization Malaysia Bayer and Hanck test ARDL 



The authors are grateful to the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Philippe Garrigues, and three anonymous reviewers, for providing us highly valuable comments and suggestions which greatly improved this research.

Funding information

The research is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Reference Nos. 2016YFA0602504), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Reference Nos. 91746208, 71774014, 71521002, 71573016, 71403021), Yangtze River Distinguished Professor of MOE, National Social Sciences Foundation (Reference No. 17ZDA065), Humanities and Social Science Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Reference No. 17YJC630145), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Reference No. 2017M620648), and the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (Reference No. 71625003).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Management and EconomicsBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Center for Energy and Environmental Policy ResearchBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  3. 3.Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in BeijingBeijingChina
  4. 4.Beijing Key Lab of Energy Economics and Environmental ManagementBeijingChina
  5. 5.Sustainable Development Research Institute for Economy and Society of BeijingBeijingChina
  6. 6.Harbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  7. 7.School of Economics and ManagementBeijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT)BeijingChina
  8. 8.Department of Business AdministrationIqra University, Islamabad CampusIslamabadPakistan

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