Efficient removal of p-nitrophenol from water using montmorillonite clay: insights into the adsorption mechanism, process optimization, and regeneration
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The present research highlights the use of a montmorillonite clay to remove p-nitrophenol (PNP) from aqueous solution. The montmorillonite clay was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses, and zero point charge in order to establish the adsorption behavior-properties relationship. The physiochemical parameters like pH, initial PNP concentration, and adsorbent dose as well as their binary interaction effects on the PNP adsorption yield were statistically optimized using response surface methodology. As a result, 99.5% removal of PNP was obtained under the optimal conditions of pH 2, adsorbent dose of 2 g/l, and PNP concentration of 20 mg/l. The interaction between adsorbent dose and initial concentration was the most influencing interaction on the PNP removal efficiency. The mass transfer of PNP at the solution/adsorbent interface was described using pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion. Langmuir isotherm well fitted the experimental equilibrium data with a satisfactory maximum adsorption capacity of 122.09 mg/g. The PNP adsorption process was thermodynamically spontaneous and endothermic. The regeneration study showed that the montmorillonite clay exhibited an excellent recycling capability. Overall, the montmorillonite clay is very attractive as an efficient, low-cost, eco-friendly, and recyclable adsorbent for the remediation of hazardous phenolic compounds in industrial effluents.
Keywordsp-Nitrophenol Adsorption Montmorillonite clay Response surface methodology Regeneration Water treatment
We thank the Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research (MAScIR) for characterization techniques support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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