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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19615–19631 | Cite as

Efficient removal of p-nitrophenol from water using montmorillonite clay: insights into the adsorption mechanism, process optimization, and regeneration

  • Mahmoud El OuardiEmail author
  • Mohamed Laabd
  • Hicham Abou Oualid
  • Younes Brahmi
  • Abdelhadi Abaamrane
  • Abdelaziz Elouahli
  • Abdelaziz Ait Addi
  • Abdellatif Laknifli
Research Article
  • 118 Downloads

Abstract

The present research highlights the use of a montmorillonite clay to remove p-nitrophenol (PNP) from aqueous solution. The montmorillonite clay was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses, and zero point charge in order to establish the adsorption behavior-properties relationship. The physiochemical parameters like pH, initial PNP concentration, and adsorbent dose as well as their binary interaction effects on the PNP adsorption yield were statistically optimized using response surface methodology. As a result, 99.5% removal of PNP was obtained under the optimal conditions of pH 2, adsorbent dose of 2 g/l, and PNP concentration of 20 mg/l. The interaction between adsorbent dose and initial concentration was the most influencing interaction on the PNP removal efficiency. The mass transfer of PNP at the solution/adsorbent interface was described using pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion. Langmuir isotherm well fitted the experimental equilibrium data with a satisfactory maximum adsorption capacity of 122.09 mg/g. The PNP adsorption process was thermodynamically spontaneous and endothermic. The regeneration study showed that the montmorillonite clay exhibited an excellent recycling capability. Overall, the montmorillonite clay is very attractive as an efficient, low-cost, eco-friendly, and recyclable adsorbent for the remediation of hazardous phenolic compounds in industrial effluents.

Keywords

p-Nitrophenol Adsorption Montmorillonite clay Response surface methodology Regeneration Water treatment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research (MAScIR) for characterization techniques support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5219_MOESM1_ESM.doc (628 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 628 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmoud El Ouardi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohamed Laabd
    • 3
  • Hicham Abou Oualid
    • 4
  • Younes Brahmi
    • 5
  • Abdelhadi Abaamrane
    • 6
  • Abdelaziz Elouahli
    • 7
  • Abdelaziz Ait Addi
    • 8
  • Abdellatif Laknifli
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biotechnology, Materials and Environment, Faculty of SciencesIbn Zohr UniversityAgadirMorocco
  2. 2.University Campus of Ait MelloulIbn Zohr UniversityAgadirMorocco
  3. 3.Laboratory of Materials and Environment, Faculty of SciencesIbn Zohr UniversityAgadirMorocco
  4. 4.Faculty of Sciences and TechnologiesMohammedia, University of Hassan IICasablancaMorocco
  5. 5.Materials Science and Nanoengineering DepartmentMohamed VI Polytechnic UniversityBenguerirMorocco
  6. 6.Faculty of ScienceIbn Zohr UniversityAgadirMorocco
  7. 7.Biomaterials and Electrochemistry Team, Faculty of ScienceChouaib Doukkali UniversityEl JadidaMorocco
  8. 8.Physical Chemistry and Environment Team, Faculty of ScienceIbn Zohr UniversityAgadirMorocco

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