Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19335–19351 | Cite as

Phycoremediation of lithium ions from aqueous solutions using free and immobilized freshwater green alga Oocystis solitaria: mathematical modeling for bioprocess optimization

  • Noura El-Ahmady El-NaggarEmail author
  • Ragaa A. Hamouda
  • Nashwa H. Rabei
  • Ibrahim E. Mousa
  • Marwa Salah Abdel-Hamid
Research Article


Lithium is registered as a serious pollutant that causes environmental damage to an irrigation water supply. Freshwater green alga (Oocystis solitaria) was studied for its potential to remove lithium ions from aqueous solutions. The Plackett–Burman design was applied for initial screening of six factors for their significances for the removal of lithium from aqueous solutions using Oocystis solitaria cells. Among the variables screened, pH, lithium concentration, and temperature were the most significant factors affecting lithium removal. Hence, the levels of these significant variables were further investigated for their interaction effects on lithium removal using the Box–Behnken statistical design. The optimum conditions for maximum lithium removal from aqueous solutions by Oocystis solitaria were the initial lithium concentration of 200 mg/L, contact time of 60 min, temperature of 30 °C, pH 5, and biomass of Oocystis solitaria cells of 1 g/L with agitation condition. Under the optimized conditions, the percentage of maximum lithium removal was 99.95% which is larger than the percentage of lithium removal recorded before applying the Plackett–Burman design (40.07%) by 2.49 times. The different properties of Oocystis solitaria, as an adsorbent, were explored with SEM and via FTIR analysis. The spectrum of FTIR analysis for samples of Oocystis solitaria cells before lithium biosorption showed different absorption peaks at 3394 cm−1, 2068 cm−1, 1638 cm−1, 1398 cm−1, 1071 cm−1, and 649 cm−1 which has been shifted to 3446 cm−1, 2924 cm−1, 1638 cm−1, 1384 cm−1, 1032 cm−1, and 613 cm−1, respectively, after lithium biosorption by the alga. The treatment of aqueous solution containing lithium with Oocystis solitaria cells immobilized in alginate beads removed 98.71% of lithium at an initial concentration of 200 mg/L after 5 h. Therefore, Oocystis solitaria may be considered as an alternative for sorption and removal of lithium ions from wastewaters.


Oocystis solitaria Biosorption of lithium Plackett-Burman design Box–Behnken design Characterization Immobilization SEM FTIR 


Authors’ contributions

NEE designed the experiments and experimental instructions, performed the statistical analysis, analyzed and interpreted the data, and contributed substantially to the writing and revising of the manuscript. RAH proposed the research concept, providing necessary tools for the experiments and experimental instructions; contributed to the manuscript reviewing; and had given the final approval of the version to be published. IEM performed the lithium ions analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) (Thermo Scientific). MSA provided some necessary tools for experiments and had given the final approval of the version to be published. NHR carried out the experiments and contributed substantially to the writing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5214_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1633 kb)


  1. Ahmad A, Bhat AH, Buang A (2017) Biosorption of transition metals by freely suspended and Ca-alginate immobilized with Chlorella vulgaris: kinetic and equilibrium modeling. J Clean Prod 171:1361–1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmaruzzaman M, Gupta VK (2011) Rice husk and its ash as low-cost adsorbents in water and waste water treatment. Ind Eng Chem Res 50:13589–13613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajayan KV, Selvaraju M, Thirugnanamoorthy K (2011) Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents. Pak J Biol Sci 14:805–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Ashed S, Duvnjak Z (1995) Adsorption of copper and chromium by Aspergillus carbonarius. Biotechnol Prog 11:638–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alok M, Jyoti M, Arti M, Gupta VK (2010) Removal and recovery of chrysoidine Y from aqueous solutions by waste materials. J Colloid Interface Sci 344:497–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Public Health Association (APHA) (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 22nd edn. APHA, Inc, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  7. Andersen RA (ed) (2005) Algal culturing techniques. Elsevier Academic Press, New York, 578 pGoogle Scholar
  8. Aral H, Vecchio-Sadus A (2008) Toxicity of lithium to humans and the environment—a literature review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 70:349–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aravindhan R, Fathima NN, Rao JR, Nair BU (2007) Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the removal of basic black dye using calcium alginate beads. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 299:232–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Banik RM, Santhiagu A, Upadhyay SN (2007) Optimization of nutrients for gellan gum production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC-31461 in molasses based medium using response surface methodology. Bioresour Technol 98:792–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barquilha CER, Cossich ES, Tavares CRG, Silva EA (2017) Biosorption of nickel(II) and copper(II) ions in batch and fixed-bed columns by free and immobilized marine algae Sargassum sp. J Clean Prod 150:58–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Becker RW, Tyobeka EM (1990) Lithium enhances proliferation of HL60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. Leuk Res 14:879–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Birch NJ (1988) Lithium. In: Seiler HG, Sigel H, Sigel A (eds) Handbook on the toxicity of inorganic compounds. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 382–393Google Scholar
  14. Box GEP, Behnken DW (1960) Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables. Technometrics 2:455–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Box GEP, Hunter WG, Hunter JS (1978) Statistics for experimenters. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Chang CY, Lee CL, Pan TM (2006) Statistical optimization of medium components for the production of Antrodia cinnamomea AC0623 in submerged cultures. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 72:654–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chassard-Bouchaud C, Galle P, Escaig F, Miyawaki M (1984) Bioaccumulation of lithium by marine organisms in European, American, and Asian coastal zones: microanalytic study using secondary ion emission. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Série III 299(18):719–724Google Scholar
  18. Choudhary DK, Sharma KP, Gaur RK (2011) Biotechnological perspectives of microbes in agro-ecosystems. Biotechnol Lett 33:1905–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Çicek A, Yilmaz O, Arar O (2018) Removal of lithium from water by aminomethyl phosphonic acid-containing resin. J Serb Chem Soc 83:1059–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cui L, Ouyang Y, Lou Q, Yang F, Chen Y, Zhu W, Luo S (2009) Removal of nutrients from wastewater with Canna indica L. under different vertical-flow constructed wetland conditions. Ecol Eng 36:1083–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dadrasnia A, Ismail S (2015) Biosurfactant production by Bacillus salmalaya for lubricating oil solubilization and biodegradation. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:9848–9863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Devi TSR, Gayathri S (2010) FTIR and FT-Raman spectral analysis of paclitaxel drugs. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2(2):106–110Google Scholar
  23. El-Naggar NE (2015) Extracellular production of the oncolytic enzyme, L-asparaginase, by newly isolated Streptomyces sp. strain NEAE-95 as potential microbial cell factories: optimization of culture conditions using response surface methodology. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 16(2):162–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. El-Naggar NE, El-Bindary AA, Nour NS (2013) Statistical optimization of process variables for antimicrobial metabolites production by Streptomyces anulatus NEAE-94 against some multidrug-resistant strains. Int J Pharm 9:322–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. El-Naggar NE, Hamouda RA, Mousa IE, Abdel-Hamid MS, Rabei NH (2018a) Statistical optimization for cadmium removal using Ulva fasciata biomass: characterization, immobilization and application for almost-complete cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. Sci Rep 8:12456Google Scholar
  26. El-Naggar NE, Hamouda RA, Mousa IE, Abdel-Hamid MS, Rabei NH (2018b) Biosorption optimization, characterization, immobilization and application of Gelidium amansii biomass for complete Pb2+ removal from aqueous solutions. Sci Rep 8:13456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. El-Sikaily A, El Nemr A, Khaled A, Abdelwehab O (2007) Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon. J Hazard Mater 148:216–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Esmaeili A, Beni AA (2015) Biosorption of nickel and cobalt from plant effluent by Sargassum glaucescens nanoparticles at new membrane reactor. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12:2055–2064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Furr AK (2000) CRC handbook of laboratory safety. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 244–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gadd GM (2009) Biosorption: critical review of scientific rationale, environmental importance and significance for pollution treatment. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84:13–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garg U, Kaur MP, Jawa GK, Sud D, Garg VK (2008) Removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption on agricultural waste biomass. J Hazard Mater 154:1149–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ghaedi M, Hajjati S, Mahmudi Z, Tyagi I, Agarwal S, Maity A, Gupta VK (2015) Modeling of competitive ultrasonic assisted removal of the dyes—methylene blue and Safranin-O using Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Chem Eng J 268:28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ghosh MK, Mittal KL (eds) (1996) Polyimides: fundamentals and applications. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Grandjean EM, Aubry JM (2009) Lithium: updated human knowledge using an evidence-based approach: part I: clinical efficacy in bipolar disorder. CNS Drugs 23:225–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Greasham R, Inamine E (1986) Nutritional improvement of processes. In: Demain AL, Soloman LA (eds) Manual of industrial microbiology and biotechnology. American Society for Microbiology; Nutritional improvement of process, Washington, DC, USA, pp 41–48Google Scholar
  36. Gunasekaran S, Abitha P (2005) Fourier transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra and normal coordinate analysis of aminobenzoesaeure. Indian J Pure Appl Phys 43:329–334Google Scholar
  37. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2008) Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by green algae Spirogyra species: kinetics and equilibrium studies. J Hazard Mater 152:407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gupta VK, Saleh TA (2013) Sorption of pollutants by porous carbon, carbon nanotubes and fullerene—an overview. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:2828–2843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gupta VK, Nayak A, Agarwal S (2015) Bioadsorbents for remediation of heavy metals: Current status and their future prospects. Environ Eng Res 20: 1–18Google Scholar
  40. Gupta VK, Sharma S, Yadav IS, Mohan D (1998) Utilization of bagasse fly ash generated in the sugar industry for the removal and recovery of phenol and p nitrophenol from wastewater. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 71:180–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gupta VK, Jain R, Nayak A, Agarwal S, Shrivastava M (2011) Removal of the hazardous dye–tartrazine by photodegradation on titanium dioxide surface. Mater Sci Eng C 31:1062–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saleh TA, Siddiqui MN, Agarwal S (2013) Chromium removal from water by activated carbon developed from waste rubber tires. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:1261–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gupta VK, Atar N, Yola ML, Üstündağ Z, Uzun L (2014a) A novel magnetic Fe@Au core-shell nanoparticles anchored graphene oxide recyclable nanocatalyst for the reduction of nitrophenol compounds. Water Res 48:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gupta VK, Nayak A, Agarwal A, Tyagi I (2014b) Potential of activated carbon from waste rubber tire for the adsorption of phenolics: effect of pre-treatment conditions. J Colloid Interface Sci 417:420–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hassan AF, Abdel-Mohsen AM, Fouda MMG (2014) Comparative study of calcium alginate, activated carbon, and their composite beads on methylene blue adsorption. Carbohydr Polym 102:192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ho Y-S, Chiang C-C, Hsu Y-C (2001) Sorption kinetics for dye removal from aqueous solution using activated clay. Sep Sci Technol 36:2473–2488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hudson RL, Moore MH (2000) IR spectra of irradiated cometary ice analogues containing methanol: a new assignment, a reassignment, and a nonassignment. Icarus 145:661–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ibrahim WM (2011) Biosorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by red macroalgae. J Hazard Mater 192:1827–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jackson P, Robinson K, Puxty G, Attalla M (2009) In situ Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis of carbon dioxide absorption and desorption in amine solutions. Energy Procedia 1(1):985–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Janakiraman N, Johnson M (2015) Functional groups of tree ferns (CYATHEA) using FT-IR: chemotaxonomic implications. Romanian J Biophys 25:131–141Google Scholar
  51. Kaneko S, Takahashi W (1990) Adsorption of lithium in seawater on alumina-magnesia mixed-oxide gels. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 47:69–79Google Scholar
  52. Kastanek P, Ferreira P, Kastanek F, Prochazkova G, Jandova J, Kronusova O, Solcova O, Rouskova M (2015) Recovery and bioaccumulation of lithium and rubidium from diluted aqueous waste leachates by microalgae. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Rhodes, Greece, 3–5 SeptemberGoogle Scholar
  53. Kato T, Fujii K, Shiori T, Inubushi T, Takhashi S (1996) Lithium side effects in relation to brain lithium concentration measured by lithium-7 magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiat 20:87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Khani H, Rofouei MK, Arab P, Vinod Kumar Gupta VK, Vafaei Z (2010) Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid-carbon paste electrode as a super selectivity sensor: application to potentiometric monitoring of mercury ion(II). J Hazard Mater 183:402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kjølholt J, Stuer-Lauridsen F, Skibsted Mogensen A, Havelund S (2003) The elements in the second rank—lithium. Miljoministeriet, Copenhagen, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  56. Klug S, Collins M, Nagao T, Merker HJ, Neubert D (1992) Effect of lithium on rat embryos in culture: growth, development, compartmental distribution and lack of a protective effect of inositol. Arch Toxicol 66:719–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kudre TG, Bhaskar N, Sakhare PZ (2017) Optimization and characterization of biodiesel production from rohu (Labeo rohita) processing waste. Renew Energy 113:1408–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kumar SS, Saramma AV (2012) Nitrate and phosphate uptake by immobilized cells of Gloeocapsa gelatinosa. J Mar Biol Assoc India 54:119–122Google Scholar
  59. Kumar YP, King P, Prasad VSRK (2006) Removal of copper from aqueous solution using Ulva fasciata sp. a marine green alga. J Hazard Mater 137:367–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kumar M, Pal A, Singh J, Garg S, Bala M, Vyas A, Khasa YP, Pachour UC (2013) Removal of chromium from water effluent by adsorption onto Vetiveria zizanioides and Anabaena species. Nat Sci 5:341–348Google Scholar
  61. Kuznetsov IA, Lukanin AS, Tsurkanov LF (1971) Effect of ions of the alkaline metals on the secondary structure of DNA. IV Thermal denaturing deoxyribonucleates of alkaline metals in solution with a low ionic strength. Biofizika 16:144–145Google Scholar
  62. Léonard A, Hantson P, Gerber GB (1995) Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity teratogenicity of lithium compounds. Mutat Res Rev Genet Toxicol 339(3):131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Li PS, Tao HC (2015) Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals. Crit Rev Microbiol 41:140–149Google Scholar
  64. Li SY, Zou DH, Luo YW, Sun QR, Deng KF, Chen YJ, Huang P (2014) Characteristics of electrically injured skin from human hand tissue samples using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. Sci Justice 54:98–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lian L, Guo L, Guo C (2009) Adsorption of Congo red from aqueous solution on Ca-bentonite. J Hazard Mater 161:126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Litovitz TL, Clark LR, Soloway RA (1994) Annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers toxic exposure surveillance system. Am J Emerg Med 12(5):546–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mallick N (2002) Biotechnological potential of immobilized algae for wastewater N, P and metal removal: a review. Biometals 15:377–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Meena AK, Mishra GK, Rai PK, Rajagopal C, Nagar PN (2005) Removal of heavy metals ions from aqueous solution using carbon aerogel as an adsorbent. J Hazard Mater 122:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mehta SK, Gaur JP (2005) Use of algae for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater: progress and prospects. Crit Rev Biotechnol 25:113–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Miyai Y, Kanoh H, Feng Q, Ooi K (1978) Intraparticle diffusion coefficient of lithium on granulated adsorbent of manganese oxide in seawater. Nippon Kaisui Gakkai-Shi Bulletin NKAGBU 49:347–351 Google Scholar
  71. Mohammadi N, Khani H, Gupta VK, Amereh E, Agarwal S (2011) Adsorption process of methyl orange dye onto mesoporous carbon material–kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J Colloid Interface Sci 362:457–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Momcilovic M, Purenovic M, Bojic A, Zarubica A, Randelovic M (2011) Removal of lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto pine cone activated carbon. Desalination 276:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nawani NN, Kapadnis B (2005) Optimization of chitinase production using statistic based experimental designs. Process Biochem 40:651–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pagnanelli F, Esposito A, Toro L, Veglio F (2003) Metal speciation and pH effect on Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd biosorption onto Sphaerotilus natans: Langmuir-type empirical model. Water Res 37:627–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Park D, Yun YS, Park JM (2010) The past, present, and future trends of biosorption. Biotechnol Bioproc E 15:86–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Philipose MT (1967) Chlorococcales, vol 8. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India, pp 31–41Google Scholar
  77. Plackett RL, Burman JP (1946) The design of optimum multifactorial experiments. Biometrika 33:305–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Popper ZA, Michel G, Herve C, Domozych DS, Willats WG, Tuohy MG, Kloareg B, Stengel DB (2011) Evolution and diversity of plant cell walls: from algae to flowering plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 62:567–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Priyadarshani I, Sahu D, Rath B (2011) Microalgal bioremediation: current practices and perspectives. J Biochem Technol 3:299–304Google Scholar
  80. Rangsayatorn N, Pokethitiyook P, Upatham ES, Lanza GR (2004) Cadmium biosorption by cells of Spirulina platensis TISTR 8217 immobilized in alginate and silica gel. Environ Int 30:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reddad Z, Gerente C, Andres Y, Cloirec PL (2002) Adsorption of several metal ions onto a low-cost biosorbent: kinetic and equilibrium studies. Environ Sci Technol 36:2067–2073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rippka R, Deruelles J, Waterbury JB, Herdman M, Stanier RY (1979) Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. J Gen Microbiol 111:1–61Google Scholar
  83. Romera E, Gonzalez F, Ballester A, Blazquez ML, Munoz JA (2007) Comparative study of heavy metals using different types of algae. Bioresour Technol 98:3344–3353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Saleem M, Pirzada T, Qadeer R (2007) Sorption of acid violet 17 and direct red 80 dyes on cotton fiber from aqueous solutions. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 292:246–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Saleh TA, Gupta VK (2011) Functionalization of tungsten oxide into MWCNT and its application for sunlight-induced degradation of rhodamine B. J Colloid Interface Sci 362:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Saleh TA, Gupta VK (2012) Photo-catalyzed degradation of hazardous dye methyl orange by use of a composite catalyst consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide. J Colloid Interface Sci 371:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Salem AMS, Harraz FA, El-Sheikh SM, Hafez HS, Ibrahima IA, Abdel-Mottaleb MSA (2015) Enhanced electrical and luminescent performance of porous silicon/MEH-PPV nanohybrid synthesized by anodization and repeated spin coating. RSC Adv 5:99892–99898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Saravanan R, Karthikeyan S, Gupta VK, Sekaran G, Narayanan V, Stephen A (2013a) Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnO/CuO nanocomposite for the degradation of textile dye on visible light illumination. Mater Sci Eng C 33:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Saravanan R, Thirumal E, Gupta VK, Narayanan V, Stephen A (2013b) The photocatalytic activity of ZnO prepared by simple thermal decomposition method at various temperatures. J Mol Liq 177:394–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Saravanan R, Gupta VK, Prakash T, Narayanan V, Stephen A (2013c) Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of novel Hg doped ZnO nanorods prepared by thermal decomposition method. J Mol Liq 178:88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Saravanan R, Karthikeyan N, Gupta VK, Thirumal E, Thangadurai P, Narayanan V, Stephen A (2013d) ZnO/Ag nanocomposite: an efficient catalyst for degradation studies of textile effluents under visible light. Mater Sci Eng C 33:2235–2244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Saravanan R, Joicy S, Gupta VK, Narayanan V, Stephen A (2013e) Visible light induced degradation of methylene blue using CeO2/V2O5 and CeO2/CuO catalysts. Mater Sci Eng C 33:4725–4731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Saravanan R, Gupta VK, Narayanan V, Stephen A (2013f) Comparative study on photocatalytic activity of ZnO prepared by different methods. J Mol Liq 181:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Saravanan R, Gupta VK, Narayanan V, Stephen A (2014a) Visible light degradation of textile effluent using novel catalyst ZnO/g-Mn2O3. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 45:1910–1917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Saravanan R, Gupta VK, Mosquera E, Gracia F (2014b) Preparation and characterization of V2O5/ZnO nanocomposite system for photocatalytic application. J Mol Liq 198:409–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Saravanan R, Mansoob Khan M, Gupta VK, Mosquera E, Gracia F, Narayanan V, Stephen A (2015) ZnO/Ag/Mn2O3 nanocomposite for visible light induced industrial textile effluent degradation, uric acid and ascorbic acid sensing and antimicrobial activity. RSC Adv 5:34645–34651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Staniszewska-Slezak E, Fedorowicz A, Kramkowski K, Leszczynska A, Chlopicki S, Baranska M, Malek K (2015) Plasma biomarkers of pulmonary hypertension identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis. Analyst 140:2273–2279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tsuruta T (2005) Removal and recovery of lithium using various microorganisms. J Biosci Bioeng 100:562–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Van de Voort FR, Sedman J, Cocciardi R, Juneau S (2007) An automated FTIR method for the routine quantitative determination of moisture in lubricants: an alternative to Karl Fischer titration. Talanta 72:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vijayaraghavan K, Yun YS (2008) Bacterial biosorbents and biosorption. Biotechnol Adv 26:266–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Volesky B (2003) Sorption and biosorption, first edn. BV Sorbex, Inc., Quebec, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  102. Wedepohl KH (1995) The composition of the continental crust. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:1217–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zahariev I, Piskin M, Karaduman E, Ivanova D, Markova I, Fachikov L (2017) FTIR spectroscopy method for investigation of Co-Ni nanoparticle nanosurface phenomena. J Chem Technol Metallurgy 52:916–928Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bioprocess Development, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research InstituteCity of Scientific Research and Technological ApplicationsNew Borg El-Arab CityEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Arts - KhulaisUniversity of JeddahJeddahSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research InstituteUniversity of Sadat CityMenoufyia GovernorateEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research InstituteUniversity of Sadat CityMenoufyia GovernorateEgypt

Personalised recommendations