Environmental impact of combustion of ethanolic biodiesel/diesel blends from several feedstocks on the gas emission levels in the atmosphere

  • Torquato Ferreira Pinheiro
  • Maria Priscila Pessanha Castro
  • Victor Haber PerezEmail author
  • Euripedes Garcia Silveira Junior
  • Marcelo Silva Sthel
  • Marcelo Gomes da Silva
Research Article


The aim of this work was to evaluate simultaneously the effect of produced ethanolic biodiesel from several feedstocks (soybean, crambe, macaw, sunflower, and waste cooking oil) and engine operational conditions (low and high engine speed) during combustion of biodiesel/diesel blends on the N2O, NOx, NO, CO2, and CO emission levels in the atmosphere. The biodiesel samples were prepared in one and/or two reaction steps, according to the acid index of each raw material, by esterification using H2SO4 and/or chemical transesterification using sodium ethoxide, both, through ethanolic route. The quality of the produced biodiesels was confirmed by ASTM/EN specifications. Then, biodiesel/diesel blends were prepared according to the following proportions: 10% (B10), 15% (B15), 25% (B25), and 50% (B50). In general way, all raw materials under combustion at low and high engine speed contributed to the formation of NOx and this effect was more drastically increased as the biodiesel concentration in the blends increases. N2O presented a similar behavior except for blends containing crambe and macaw biodiesel whose emissions were slightly reduced as a function of biodiesel content in these blends. Then, Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to discriminate the effect of engine operating conditions, biodiesel kind, and biodiesel content in the blends during their combustion on the exhaust emissions. The attained results point to crambe and macaw as more environmentally sustainable feedstocks for biodiesel production because they generate less greenhouse gas emissions. These results are particularly attractive considering that, both, crambe and macaw are non-edible feedstocks with great potential for biodiesel production.


Biodiesel production Edible and non-edible feedstocks Biodiesel/diesel blends Greenhouse gas emissions 



Particularly, author Dr. Silveira Junior thanks the State University of Northern of Rio de Janeiro (UENF) for the Postdoctoral fellowship associated to the Graduate Program in Natural Sciences.

Funding information

We received financial supports from the Carlos Chagas Filho Research Foundation of the Rio de Janeiro State (FAPERJ), the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher-Level Personnel—Brazil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Torquato Ferreira Pinheiro
    • 1
  • Maria Priscila Pessanha Castro
    • 1
  • Victor Haber Perez
    • 2
    Email author
  • Euripedes Garcia Silveira Junior
    • 2
  • Marcelo Silva Sthel
    • 1
  • Marcelo Gomes da Silva
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics Science Department, Center of Sciences and TechnologyState University of Northern of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Processes Engineering Sector, Center of Sciences and Agropecuary TechnologiesState University of Northern of Rio de JaneiroCampos dos GoytacazesBrazil

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