Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18329–18342 | Cite as

Adsorption of herbicide 2,4-D from aqueous solution using organo-modified bentonite clay

  • Fernando Manzotti de SouzaEmail author
  • Onélia Aparecida Andreo dos Santos
  • Melissa Gurgel Adeodato Vieira
Research Article


This study analyzed the performance of organophilic clays obtained from the chemical modification of sodium bentonite clay when applied to the adsorption of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Kinetic curves and equilibrium isotherms were obtained in order to determine time and adsorption capacity of the material, as well as understand the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. The results showed that the most predictive kinetic model for experimental data was of pseudo-second order (R2 > 0.98), and that external mass transfer is the dominant factor in the time of operation. Isotherms were obtained at temperatures of 298, 308, and 318 K, under which the Dubinin-Radushkevich model was shown to have a good fit to data (R2 > 0.96), according to mathematical adjustments. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained experimentally was 50.36 mg g−1, found at a temperature of 298 K, being higher or compatible with other materials reported in the literature. With help of the thermodynamic studies on the process, it was observed that the adsorption of 2,4-D in organophilic clays refers to a spontaneous (ΔG°ads < 0), exothermal (ΔH°ads = − 9.99 kJ mol−1) process of physical nature. Lastly, it was observed that the adsorbent can be easily regenerated when subjected to eluents such as mixtures containing fractions of ethanol/water (desorption = 95%).


Herbicide 2,4-D Clay Adsorption Kinetic Equilibrium Regeneration 



The authors thank Dolomil Ltda by the clay kindly provided for this research, as well as CAPES (Coordination of Higher Education and Graduate Training) and CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Manzotti de Souza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Onélia Aparecida Andreo dos Santos
    • 1
  • Melissa Gurgel Adeodato Vieira
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringState University of MaringáMaringáBrazil
  2. 2.School of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of CampinasCampinasBrazil

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