Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18365–18378 | Cite as

Factors influencing carbon dioxide emissions in Iran’s provinces with emphasis on spatial linkages

  • Siab MamipourEmail author
  • Hadis Beheshtipour
  • Majid Feshari
  • Hossein Amiri
Research Article
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

Current economic policy planning places much emphasis on balancing development and environmental protection. Hence, it is important to determine the drivers of environment pollution from the theoretical, scientific, and policymaking aspects in the context of continuous economic growth. This paper investigates the factors affecting per capita CO2 emissions in 30 provinces in Iran from 2009 to 2014 with emphasis on spatial spillover effects using the Spatial Durbin Model. The findings show that per capita CO2 emissions are positively and significantly affected by per capita GDP, industrialization, and urbanization but negatively affected by changes in population. The results of the spatial section of the model indicate that both the more and the less-polluted provinces tend to cluster together, indicating positive spatial dependence for CO2 emissions in the provinces. Also, the spatial spillover of per capita GDP and the growth of urbanization have a negative and significant effect on per capita CO2 emissions in the provinces, while the spatial effect of changes in population is significant but positive. In other words, the economic development and rise in urbanization in one province are the results of changes in pollution levels in neighboring provinces.

Keywords

Spatial spillover Spatial Durbin Model Adjacency CO2 emissions Iran 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express their sincere appreciation to the Editor-in-Chief and anonymous referees for their helpful comments and suggestions, which tremendously improved the quality of the paper.

References

  1. Akbostancı E, Türüt-Aşık S, Tunç Gİ (2009) The relationship between income and environment in Turkey: is there an environmental Kuznets curve? Energy Policy 37(3):861–867Google Scholar
  2. Alam S, Fatima A, Butt MS (2007) Sustainable development in Pakistan in the context of energy consumption demand and environmental degradation. J Asian Econ 18(5):825–837Google Scholar
  3. Al-mulali U, Sab CNBC, Fereidouni HG (2012) Exploring the bi-directional long run relationship between urbanization, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emission. Energy 46(1):156–167Google Scholar
  4. Anselin L (2001) Spatial effects in econometric practice in environmental and resource economics. Am J Agric Econ 83(3):705–710Google Scholar
  5. Anselin L, Griffith DA (1988) Do spatial effecfs really matter in regression analysis? Pap Reg Sci 65(1):11–34Google Scholar
  6. Anselin L, Rey SJ (1997) Introduction to the special issue on spatial econometrics. Int Reg Sci Rev 20(1-2):1–7Google Scholar
  7. Appiah KDJ, Yeboah M, Appiah R (2019) Causal correlation between energy use and carbon emissions in selected emerging economies—panel model approach. Environ Sci Pollut Res:1–17Google Scholar
  8. Begum RA, Sohag K, Abdullah SMS, Jaafar M (2015) CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic and population growth in Malaysia. Renew Sust Energ Rev 41:594–601Google Scholar
  9. Belotti F, Hughes G, Mortari AP (2013) xsmle: a Stata command for spatial panel-data models estimation, Italian Stata Users’ Group Meetings 2013. Stata Users GroupGoogle Scholar
  10. Birdsall N (1992) Another look at population and global warming: population, health and nutrition policy research. Working Paper, Washington, DC: World Bank, WPS 1020Google Scholar
  11. Boopen S Vinesh S (2011) On the relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth: the Mauritian experience, University of Mauritius, Mauritius Environment Outlook Report, p 2015. http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/conferences/2011-EDiA/papers/776-Seetanah.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 2018
  12. Boserup E (1981) Population and technological change: a study of long-term trendsGoogle Scholar
  13. Boserup E (2011) The conditions of agricultural growth: the economics of agrarin change under population pressure. Transaction Publishers, PiscatawayGoogle Scholar
  14. Burnett JW, Bergstrom JC, Dorfman JH (2013) A spatial panel data approach to estimating U.S. state-level energy emissions. Energy Econ 40:396–404Google Scholar
  15. Cropper M, Griffiths C (1994) The interaction of population growth and environmental quality. Am Econ Rev 84(2):250–254Google Scholar
  16. Elhorst JP (2010) Applied spatial econometrics: raising the bar. Spat Econ Anal 5(1):9–28Google Scholar
  17. Esteve V, Tamarit C (2012) Is there an environmental Kuznets curve for Spain? Fresh evidence from old data. Econ Model 29(6):2696–2703Google Scholar
  18. GCP (2018) The global carbon project report. Available at: https://www.globalcarbonproject.org/. Accessed 10 Mar 2019
  19. Griffith DA Paelinck JHP (2011) Non-standard spatial statistics and spatial econometrics. In: Paelinck JHP (Hrsg.). Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  20. Grossman GM, Krueger AB (1991) Environmental impacts of a North American free trade agreement. National Bureau of Economic ResearchGoogle Scholar
  21. Grossman GM, Krueger AB (1995) Economic growth and the environment. Q J Econ 110(2):353–377Google Scholar
  22. Hettige H, Mani M, Wheeler D (2000) Industrial pollution in economic development: the environmental Kuznets curve revisited. J Dev Econ 62(2):445–476Google Scholar
  23. Holtz-Eakin D, Selden TM (1995) Stoking the fires? CO2 emissions and economic growth. J Public Econ 57(1):85–101Google Scholar
  24. Huang J-T (2018a) Sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions and government spending on environmental protection in China-evidence from spatial econometric analysis. J Clean Prod 175:431–441Google Scholar
  25. Huang J (2018b) Investigating the driving forces of China’s carbon intensity based on a dynamic spatial model. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(22):21833–21843Google Scholar
  26. IEBS (2004) Iran energy balance sheet (in Persian). Iran’s Ministry of Energy. Available at: http://pep.moe.gov.ir/. Accessed 10 Dec 2017
  27. Jiang L, Zhou H-f, Bai L, Zhou P (2018) Does foreign direct investment drive environmental degradation in China? An empirical study based on air quality index from a spatial perspective. J Clean Prod 176:864–872Google Scholar
  28. Kasman A, Duman YS (2015) CO2 emissions, economic growth, energy consumption, trade and urbanization in new EU member and candidate countries: a panel data analysis. Econ Model 44:97–103Google Scholar
  29. Kuznets S (1955) Economic growth and income inequality. Am Econ Rev 45(1):1–28Google Scholar
  30. Kuznets S (1963) Quantitative aspects of the economic growth of nations: VIII. Distribution of income by size. Econ Dev Cult Chang 11(Part 2):1–80Google Scholar
  31. Lamla MJ (2009) Long-run determinants of pollution: a robustness analysis. Ecol Econ 69(1):135–144Google Scholar
  32. Lee J Wong DW (2001) Statistical analysis with ArcView GIS John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  33. LeSage J, Pace RK (2009a) Introduction to spatial econometrics, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  34. LeSage J, Pace RK (2009b) Introduction to spatial econometrics. Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  35. Liang S, Zhao J, He SXQ, Ma X (2019) Spatial econometric analysis of carbon emission intensity in Chinese provinces from the perspective of innovation-driven. Environ Sci Pollut Res:1–18Google Scholar
  36. Lin S, Zhao D, Marinova D (2009) Analysis of the environmental impact of China based on STIRPAT model. Environ Impact Assess Rev 29(6):341–347Google Scholar
  37. Malthus TR (1798) An essay on the principle of population, as it affects the future improvement of society. With remarks on the speculations of mr. Godwin, m. Condorcet, and other writers. By TR MalthusJ. Johnson LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Martínez-Zarzoso I, Maruotti A (2011) The impact of urbanization on CO2 emissions: evidence from developing countries. Ecol Econ 70(7):1344–1353Google Scholar
  39. Martínez-Zarzoso I, Bengochea-Morancho A, Morales-Lage R (2007) The impact of population on CO 2 emissions: evidence from European countries. Environ Resour Econ 38(4):497–512Google Scholar
  40. Mobley LR, Frech HE, Anselin L (2009) Spatial interaction, spatial multipliers and hospital competition. Int J Econ Bus 16(1):1–17Google Scholar
  41. Murthy NS, Panda M, Parikh J (1997) Economic development, poverty reduction and carbon emissions in India. Energy Econ 19(3):327–354Google Scholar
  42. Neumayer E (2003) Are left-wing party strength and corporatism good for the environment? Evidence from panel analysis of air pollution in OECD countries. Ecol Econ 45(2):203–220Google Scholar
  43. Omri A (2013) CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth nexus in MENA countries: evidence from simultaneous equations models. Energy Econ 40:657–664Google Scholar
  44. Orubu CO, Omotor DG (2011) Environmental quality and economic growth: searching for environmental Kuznets curves for air and water pollutants in Africa. Energy Policy 39(7):4178–4188Google Scholar
  45. Pinkse J, Slade ME (2010) The future of spatial econometrics. J Reg Sci 50(1):103–117Google Scholar
  46. Rios V, Gianmoena L (2018) Convergence in CO2 emissions: a spatial economic analysis with cross-country interactions. Energy EconGoogle Scholar
  47. Salahuddin M, Ali MI, Vink N, Gow J (2019) The effects of urbanization and globalization on CO 2 emissions: evidence from the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(3):2699–2709Google Scholar
  48. Selden TM, Song D (1994) Environmental quality and development: is there a Kuznets curve for air pollution emissions? J Environ Econ Manag 27(2):147–162Google Scholar
  49. Shafik N (1994) Economic Development and environmental quality: an econometric analysis. Oxf Econ Pap 46:757–773Google Scholar
  50. Shi A (2003) The impact of population pressure on global carbon dioxide emissions, 1975–1996: evidence from pooled cross-country data. Ecol Econ 44(1):29–42Google Scholar
  51. Shim JH (2007) The reform of energy subsidies for the enhancement of marine sustainability: an empirical analysis of energy subsidies worldwide and an in-depth case study of South Korea’s energy subsidy policies. University of Delaware, NewarkGoogle Scholar
  52. Su W, Liu Y, Wang S, Zhao Y, Su Y, Li S (2018) Regional inequality, spatial spillover effects, and the factors influencing city-level energy-related carbon emissions in China. J Geogr Sci 28(4):495–513Google Scholar
  53. UN (2015) Adoption of the Paris Agreement, United Nations. United Nations framework convention on climate change, United NationsGoogle Scholar
  54. Vega SH Elhorst JP (2013) On spatial econometric models, spillover effects, and W. 53rd ERSA Congress, Palermo, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang S, Huang Y, Zhou Y (2019) Spatial spillover effect and driving forces of carbon emission intensity at the city level in China. J Geogr Sci 29(2):231–252Google Scholar
  56. WorldBank (2018) World Data Bank. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.KT?view=map. Accessed 12 June 2018
  57. Xu B, Lin B (2015) How industrialization and urbanization process impacts on CO2 emissions in China: Evidence from nonparametric additive regression models. Energy Econ 48:188–202Google Scholar
  58. You W, Lv Z (2018) Spillover effects of economic globalization on CO2 emissions: a spatial panel approach. Energy Econ 73:248–257Google Scholar
  59. Zhang Q, Yang J, Sun ZWF (2017) Analyzing the impact factors of energy-related CO2 emissions in China: what can spatial panel regressions tell us? J Clean Prod 161:1085–1093Google Scholar
  60. Zhao X, Burnett JW, Fletcher JJ (2014) Spatial analysis of China province-level CO2 emission intensity. Renew Sust Energ Rev 33:1–10Google Scholar
  61. Zhou C, Wang S (2018) Examining the determinants and the spatial nexus of city-level CO2 emissions in China: a dynamic spatial panel analysis of China’s cities. J Clean Prod 171:917–926Google Scholar
  62. Zhu L, Gan Q, Liu Y, Yan Z (2017) The impact of foreign direct investment on SO2 emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: a spatial econometric analysis. J Clean Prod 166:189–196Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EconomicsKharazmi UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations