Predicting mercury bioavailability in soil for earthworm Eisenia fetida using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique
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In general, the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique is an effective tool for evaluating metal bioavailability; however, its applicability is subject to the type of metal and organism involved. In this study, the accumulated masses of Hg in DGT probes and in the earthworm species Eisenia fetida were monitored for 10 days, to test if the DGT technique can be used as a predicting method for the bioavailability of soil Hg to earthworms. In the Hg exposure tests using soils prepared with different peat moss concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20% and varying pH values of 4.6, 5.6, and 6.2, the experimentally determined DGT-soil accumulation factor (DSAF) and biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) both increased as the peat moss content decreased and the pH increased. According to a one compartment model, this was a result of the increased Hg uptake rate constant (k1) and the relatively stable Hg elimination constant (k2) under lower peat moss and higher pH conditions. It is interesting to note that the Hg uptake rates by DGT and earthworms were considerably higher for fresh soils than for aged soils, while porewater (and acid-extractable) Hg concentrations were rather similar between the two types of soils. Across diverse soil properties, steady-state Hg in earthworm tissue showed a strong positive correlation with DGT-measured Hg flux ([earthworm Hg] = 354(DGT−Hg flux)−34, r2 = 0.88), while meager correlations were found between Hg concentration in earthworms and that in porewater (and acid-extractable). The overall results indicate that DGT-measured Hg flux is a better tool than conventional methods for predicting Hg bioavailability for earthworms inhabiting diverse types of soil.
KeywordsDiffusive gradients in thin films Bioavailability Mercury Earthworms pH Peat moss
This study was supported by the GIST Research Institute (GRI) grant funded by the GIST in 2019, and the Polar Academic Program (PE18900).
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