Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18354–18364 | Cite as

Toxicity of three emerging contaminants to non-target marine organisms

  • Allyson Q. da SilvaEmail author
  • Denis Moledo de Souza AbessaEmail author
Research Article
  • 76 Downloads

Abstract

Coastal areas are continually impacted by anthropic activities because they shelter large urban conglomerates. Urban effluents directly or indirectly end up reaching the marine environment, releasing a large number of pollutants which include the so-called contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), since the conventional treatment plants are not effective in removing these compounds from the effluents. These substances include hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, nanoparticles, biocides, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and bisphenol-A (BPA) to two marine crustaceans and one echinoderm, evaluating the following parameters: survival (Artemia sp. and Mysidopsis juniae), embryo-larval development (Echinometra lucunter). The LC50 values calculated in the acute toxicity tests showed that the compounds were more toxic to M. juniae than to the Artemia sp. Among the three contaminants, EE2 was the most toxic (LC50-48h = 18.4 ± 2.7 mg L−1 to Artemia sp.; LC50-96h = 0.36 ± 0.07 mg L−1 to M. juniae). The three tested compounds affected significantly the embryonic development of the sea urchin in all tested concentrations, including ecologically relevant concentrations, indicating the potential risk that these contaminants may present to the marine biota.

Keywords

ASA BPA EE2 Acute toxicity Chronic toxicity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Fernando Perina for the photographs of sea urchin embryos. DMSA thanks the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the PQ fellowships (processes no. 311609/2014-7 and no. 308533/2018-6).

Funding information

This study was funded by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—CNPq (process 455280/2014-2) and Fundação Cearense de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—FUNCAP.

Compliance with ethical standards

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. ABNT (2011) Toxicidade aguda – Método com ensaio com Misidáceo (Crustacea). Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  2. ABNT (2012) Toxicidade crônica de curta duração – Método de ensaio com ouriço do mar (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida A, Calisto V, Esteves VI, Schneider RJ, Soares AMVM, Figueira E, Freitas R (2014) Presence of the pharmaceutical drug carbamazepine in coastal systems: effects on bivalves. Aquat Toxicol 156:74–87Google Scholar
  4. Andersen HR, Wollenberger L, Halling-Sorensen B, Kusk KO (2001) Development of copepod nauplii to copepodites—a parameter for chronic toxicity including endocrine disruption. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:2821–2829Google Scholar
  5. ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials (1990) Proposed standard guide for conducting toxicity tests with sperm and eggs of sea urchins and other echinoids. ASTM Subcommittee E-47.01 on Aquatic Toxicology (Charman G.A. Chapman). Philadelphia, PA, Draft nº4, 61pGoogle Scholar
  6. Atkinson SK, Marlatt VL, Kimpe LE, Lean DRS, Trudeau VL, Blais JM (2011) Environmental factors affecting ultraviolet photodegradation rates and estrogenicity of estrone and ethinylestradiol in natural waters. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 60:1–7Google Scholar
  7. Bambino K, Chu J (2017) Zebrafish in toxicology and environmental health. Curr Top Dev Biol 124:331–367Google Scholar
  8. Barceló D (2003) Emerging pollutants in water analysis. Trends Anal Chem 22:14–16Google Scholar
  9. Basheer C, Lee HK, Tan KS (2004) Endocrine disrupting alkylphenols and bisphenol-A in coastal waters and supermarket seafood from Singapore. Mar Pollut Bull 48:1145–1167Google Scholar
  10. Belfroid A, Velzen MV, Horst BVD (2002) Occurrence of bisphenol A in surface water and uptake in fish: evaluation of field measurement. Chemosphere 49:97–103Google Scholar
  11. Berninger JP, Brooks BW (2010) Leveraging mammalian pharmaceutical toxicology and pharmacology data to predict chronic fish responses to pharmaceuticals. Toxicol Lett 193:69–78Google Scholar
  12. Blair BD, Crago JP, Hedman CJ, Klaper RD (2013) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products found in the Great Lakes above concentrations of environmental concern. Chemosphere 93(9):2116–2123Google Scholar
  13. Boeckel TPV, Gandra S, Ashok A, Caudron Q, Grenfell BT, Levin SA, Laxminarayan R (2014) Global antibiotic consumption 2000 to 2010: an analysis of national pharmaceutical sales data. Lancet Infect Dis 14:742–750Google Scholar
  14. Bones J, Thomas KV, Paull B (2007) Using environmental analytical data to estimate levels of community consumption of illicit drugs and abused pharmaceuticals. J Environ Monit 9:701–707Google Scholar
  15. Bosnjak I, Borra M, Iamunno F, Benvenuto G, Ujevic I, Burselic I, Roje-Busatto R, Mladineo I (2014) Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo. Aquat Toxicol 156:21–29Google Scholar
  16. Breitholtz M, Bengtsson BE (2001) Oestrogens have no hormonal effect on the development and reproduction of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. Mar Pollut Bull 42:879–886Google Scholar
  17. Brennan SJ, Brougham CA, Roche JJ, Fogarty AM (2006) Multi-generational effects of four selected environmental oestrogens on Daphnia magna. Chemosphere 64:49–55Google Scholar
  18. Brun GL, Bernier M, Losier R, Doe K, Jackman P, Lee H (2006) Pharmaceutically active compounds in Atlantic Canadian sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters, and potential for environmental effects as measured by acute and chronic aquatic toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 25(8):2163–2176Google Scholar
  19. Canesi L, Fabbri E (2015) Environmental effects of BPA: focus on aquatic species. Dose Response 13:1–14Google Scholar
  20. Canesi L, Lorusso LC, Ciacci C, Betti M, Zampini M, Gallo G (2004) Environmental estrogens can affect the function of mussel hemocytes through rapid modulation of kinase pathways. Gen Comp Endocrinol 138:58–69Google Scholar
  21. Canesi L, Betti M, Lorusso LC, Ciacci C, Gallo G (2005) “In vivo” effects of bisphenol A in Mytilus hemocytes: modulation of kinase-mediated signalling pathways. Aquat Toxicol 71:73–84Google Scholar
  22. Castro FJ, Santos DRA, Buongermino CRP, Cortez FS, Pereira CDS, Choeri RB, Cesar A (2014) Ecotoxicological assessment of four pharmaceutical compounds through acute toxicity test. O mundo da saúde 38:51–55Google Scholar
  23. Chan SM, Gu PL, Chu KH, Tobe SS (2003) Crustacean neuropeptide genes of the CHH/MIH/GIH family: implications from molecular studies. Gen Comp Endocrinol 134:214–219Google Scholar
  24. Cleuvers M (2004) Mixture toxicity of the anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and acetylsalicylic acid. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 59:309–315Google Scholar
  25. Cortez FS, Pereira CDS, Santos AR, Cesar A, Choueri RB, Martini GA, Bohrer-Morel MB (2012) Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758). Environ Pollut 168:145–150Google Scholar
  26. Dai G, Huang J, Chen W, Wang B, Yu G, Deng S (2014) Major pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment plant and receiving water in Beijing, China, and associated ecological risk. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 92:655–661Google Scholar
  27. Du B, Price AE, Scott WC, Kistofco LA, Ramirez AJ, Chambliss K, Yelderman JC, Brooks BW (2014) Comparison of contaminants of emerging concern removal, discharge, and water quality hazards among centralized and on-site wastewater treatment system effluents receiving common wastewater influent. Sci Total Environ 466(467):976–984Google Scholar
  28. Ebele AJ, Abdallah MA, Harrad S (2017) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the freshwater aquatic environment. Emerging Contaminants 3:1–16Google Scholar
  29. EC – European Commission (2013) Directive 2013/39/UE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 August 2013, amending directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policyGoogle Scholar
  30. Environment Canada (2014) Reference method for measuring the toxicity of contaminated sediment to embryos and larvae of Echinoids (sea urchins or sand dollars). Environment Canada, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  31. European Commission (2011) Bisphenol A: EU ban on baby bottles to enter into force tomorrow. Available http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-11-664_en.htm. Accessed 9 Jan 2019
  32. European Commission - EC (2003) Technical guidance document on risk assessment. TGD Part II. Institute for health and consumer protection. EUR 20418 EN/3. 337p. Available at http://europa.eu.int Accessed Aug 2015
  33. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) (2014) Bisphenol A (BPA): use in food contact application. Available https://www.fda.gov/newsevents/publichealthfocus/ucm064437.htm (accessed January 9, 2019)
  34. Fent K, Weston AA, Caminada D (2006) Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals. Aquat Toxicol 76:122–159Google Scholar
  35. Flint S, Markle T, Thompson S, Wallace E (2012) Bisphenol A exposure, effects and policy: a wildlife perspective. J Environ Manag 104:19–34Google Scholar
  36. Gimiliani GT, Fontes RFC, Abessa DMS (2016) Modelling the dispersion of endocrine disruptors in the Santos Estuarine System (Sao Paulo State, Brazil). Braz J Oceanogr 64:1–8Google Scholar
  37. Gómez-Oliván LM, Galar-Martínez M, Islas-Flores H, García-Medina S, SanJuan-Reyes N (2014) DNA damage and oxidative stress induced by acetylsalicylic acid in Daphnia magna. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 164:21–26Google Scholar
  38. González-Pérez BK, Sarma SSS, Nandini S (2016) Effects of selected pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen and amoxillin) on the demography of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus havanaensis (Rotifera). Egypt J Aquat Res 42:341–347Google Scholar
  39. Government of Canada (2016) Bisphenol A (BPA). Available https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/home-garden-safety/bisphenol-bpa.html (accessed January 9, 2019)
  40. Gumbi BP, Moodley B, Birungi G, Ndungu PG (2017) Detection and quantification of acidic drug residues in South African surface water using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chemosphere 168:1042–1050Google Scholar
  41. Gunnarsson L, Jauhiainen A, Kristiansson E, Nerman O, Larsson DGJ (2008) Evolutionary conservation of human drug targets in organisms used for environmental risk assessment. Environ Sci Technol 42:5807–5813Google Scholar
  42. Guo L, Li Z, Gao P, Hu H, Gibson M (2015) Ecological risk assessment of bisphenol A in surface waters of China based on both traditional and reproductive endpoints. Chemosphere 139:133–137Google Scholar
  43. Hamid H, Eskicioglu C (2012) Fate of estrogenic hormones in wastewater and sludge treatment: a review of properties and analytical detection techniques in sludge matrix. Water Res 46:5813–5833Google Scholar
  44. Hannah R, D’Aco VJ, Anderson PD, Buzby ME, Caldwell DJ, Cunningham VL, Ericson JF, Johnson AC, Parke NJ, Samuelian JH, Sumpter JP (2009) Exposure assessment of 17α-ethinylestradiol in surface waters of the United States and Europe. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:2725–2732Google Scholar
  45. Hirano M, Ishibashi H, Matsumura N, Nagao Y, Watanabe N, Watanabe A, Onikura N, Kishi K, Arizono K (2004) Acute toxicity responses of two crustaceans, Americamysis bahia and Daphnia magna, to endocrine disrupters. J Health Sci 50:97–100Google Scholar
  46. Industry Experts. (2016). Bisphenol A—a global market overview. Retrieved from https://industry-experts.com/verticals/chemicals-and-materials/bisphenol-a-a-global-market-overview (Accessed January 11, 2019)
  47. Jin S, Yang F, Xu Y, Dai H, Liu W (2013) Risk assessment of xenoestrogens in a typical domestic sewage—holding lake in China. Chemosphere 93:892–898Google Scholar
  48. Kabir ER, Rahman MS, Rahman I (2015) A review on endocrine disruptors and their possible impacts on human health. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 40:241–258Google Scholar
  49. Kakaley EKM, Wang HY, LeBlanc GA (2017) Agonist-mediated assembly of the crustacean methyl farnesoate receptor. Sci Rep 7:45071.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep45071 Google Scholar
  50. Kang J, Kondo F (2005) Bisphenol A degradation in seawater is different from that river water. Chemosphere 60:1288–1292Google Scholar
  51. Kasim NA, Whitehouse M, Ramachandran C, Bermejo M, Lennernäs H, Hussain AS, Junginger HE, Stavchannsky SA, Midha KK, Shah VP, Amidon GL (2004) Molecular properties of WHO essential drugs and provisional biopharmaceutical classification. Mol Pharm 1:85–96Google Scholar
  52. Kibria G, Hossain MM, Mallick D, Lau TC, Wu R (2016) Monitoring of metal pollution in waterways across Bangladesh and ecological and public health implications of pollution. Chemosphere 165:1–9Google Scholar
  53. Kim Y, Choi K, Jung J, Park S, Kim P, Park J (2007) Aquatic toxicity of acetaminophen, carbamazepine, cimetidine, diltiazem and six major sulfonamides, and their potential ecological risk in Korea. Environ Int 33:370–375Google Scholar
  54. Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Buxton HT (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones and other organic wastewater contaminants in the U.S. streams , 1999–2000: a national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36:1202–1211Google Scholar
  55. Kullenberg G (1999) Approaches to addressing the problems of pollution of the marine environment: an overview. Ocean Coast Manag 42:999–1018Google Scholar
  56. Kümmerer K (2009) The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment due to human use—present knowledge and future challenges. J Environ Manag 90:2354–2366Google Scholar
  57. Kuster M, Alda MJL, Hernando MD, Petrovic M, Martín-Alonso J, Barceló D (2008) Analysis and occurrence of pharmaceuticals, estrogens, progestogens, and polar pesticides in sewage treatment plant effluents, river water and drinking water in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain). J Hydrol 358:112–123Google Scholar
  58. Ladewig DV, Jungmann D, Köhler H-R, Licht O, Ludwichowski K-U, Schirling M, Triebskorn R, Nagel R (2006) Effects of bisphenol A on Gammarus fossarum and Lumbriculus variegatus in artificial indoor streams. Toxicol Environ Chem 88(4):649–664Google Scholar
  59. Lanas A, McCarthy D, Voelker M, Brueckner A, Senn S, Baron JA (2011) Short-term acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) use for pain, fever, or colds—gastrointestinal adverse effects: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Drugs R D 11:277–288Google Scholar
  60. Lange HJD, Noordoven W, Murk AJ, Lürling M, Peeters ETHM (2006) Behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. Aquat Toxicol 78:209–216Google Scholar
  61. Lapworth DJ, Baran N, Stuart ME, Ward RS (2012) Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater: a review of sources, fate and occurrence. Environ Pollut 163:287–303Google Scholar
  62. Laufer H, Borst D, Baker FC, Carrasco C, Sinkus M, Reuter CC, Tsai LW, Schooley DA (1987) Identification of a juvenile hormone-like compound in a crustacean. Science 235:202–205Google Scholar
  63. Lee HJ, Chattopadhyay S, Gong EY, Ahn RS, Lee K (2003) Antiandrogenic effects of bisphenol A and nonylphenol on the function of androgen receptor. Toxicol Sci 75(1):40–46Google Scholar
  64. Lehmler HJ, Liu B, Gadogbe M, Bao W (2018) Exposure to bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and bisphenol S in U.S. adults and children: the national health and nutrition examination survey 2013-2014. ACS omega 3(6):6523–6532Google Scholar
  65. Li WC (2014) Occurrence, sources and fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment and soil. Environ Pollut 187:193–201Google Scholar
  66. Li J, Zhou B, Shao J, Yang Q, Liu Y, Cai W (2007) Influence of the presence of metals and surface-active compounds on the sorption of bisphenol A to sediment. Chemosphere 68:1298–1303Google Scholar
  67. Lin ST, Sandeler SI (1999) Prediction of octanol—water partition coefficients using a group contribution solvation model. Ind Eng Chem Res 38:4081–4091Google Scholar
  68. Lisboa NS, Fahning CS, Cotrim G, Anjos JP, Andrade JB, Hatje V, Rocha GO (2013) A simple and sensitive UFLC-fluorescence method for endocrine disrupters determination in marine waters. Talanta 117:168–175Google Scholar
  69. Liu Y, Tam NF, Guan Y, Yasojima M, Zhou J, Gao B (2011) Acute toxicity of nonylphenols and bisphenol A to the embryonic development of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. Ecotoxicology 20:1233–1245Google Scholar
  70. López-Serna R, Petrovic M, Barceló D (2012) Direct analysis of pharmaceuticals, their metabolites and transformation products in environmental waters using on-line TurboFlow chromatography–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1252:115–129Google Scholar
  71. Luna TO, Plautz SC, Salice CJ (2015) Chronic effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol, fluoxetine, and the mixture on individual and population-level end points in Daphnia magna. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 68:603–611Google Scholar
  72. Maranho LA, Garrido-Pérez MC, DelValls TA, Martín-Díaz ML (2015) Suitability of standardized acute toxicity tests for marine sediment assessment: pharmaceutical contamination. Water Air Soil Pollut 226:1–15Google Scholar
  73. Marcial HS, Hagiwara A, Snell TW (2003) Estrogenic compounds affect the development of harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicas. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:3025–3030Google Scholar
  74. Marques CR, Abrantes N, Gonçalves F (2004) Life-history traits of standard and autochthonous cladocerans: II. Acute and chronic effects of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites. Environ Toxicol 19:527–540Google Scholar
  75. Mathews JB, Twomey K, Zacharewski TR (2001) In vitro and in vivo interactions of bisphenol A and its metabolite, bisphenol A glucuronide, with estrogen receptors α and β. Chem Res Toxicol 14(2):149–157Google Scholar
  76. Matsushima A, Kakuta Y, Teramoto T, Koshiba T, Liu X, Okada H, Tokunaga T, Kawabata S, Kimura M, Shimohigashi Y (2007) Structural evidence for endocrine disruptor bisphenol A binding to human nuclear receptor ERRγ. J Biochem 142(4):517–524Google Scholar
  77. Mazurová E, Hilscherová K, Triebskorn R, Köhler H, Maršálek B, Bláha L (2008) Endocrine regulation of the reproduction in crustaceans: identification of potential targets for toxicants and environmental contaminants. Biologia 63(2):139–150Google Scholar
  78. Moriyama K, Tagami T, Akamizu T, Usui T, Saijo M, Kanamoto N, Hataya Y, Shimatsu A, Kuzuya H, Nakao K (2002) Thyroid hormone action is disrupted by bisphenol A as an antagonist. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87(11):5185–5190Google Scholar
  79. Mu X, Rider CV, Hwang GS, Hoy H, LeBlanc GA (2005) Covert signal disruption: anti-ecdysteroidal activity of bisphenol A involves cross talk between signaling pathways. Environ Toxicol Chem 24(1):146–152Google Scholar
  80. Nannou CI, Kosma CI, Albanis TA (2014) Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in surface waters: analytical method development and environmental risk assessment. Int J Environ Anal Chem 95(13):1242–1262Google Scholar
  81. Nieto E, Corada-Fernádez C, Hampel M, Lara-Martín PA, Sánchez-Argüello P, Blasco J (2017) Effects of exposure to pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and carbamazepine) spiked sediments in the midge, Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae). Sci Total Environ 609:715–723Google Scholar
  82. Nunes B, Carvalho F, Guilhermino L (2005) Acute toxicity of widely used pharmaceuticals in aquatic species: Gambusia holbrooki, Artemia parthenogenetica and Tetraselmis chuii. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 61:413–419Google Scholar
  83. Özlem ÇA, Hatice P (2008) Effects of bisphenol A on the embryonic development of the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus). Environ Toxicol Chem 23:387–392Google Scholar
  84. Paiva FV, Souza NC, Van Haandel AC (2011) Identificação de compostos orgânicos e farmacêuticos em esgoto hospitalar utilizando cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa. Eng Sanit Ambient 16:37–44Google Scholar
  85. Pal A, Gin KY, Lin AY, Reinhard M (2010) Impacts of emerging organic contaminants on freshwater resources: review of recent occurrences, sources, fate and effects. Sci Total Environ 408:6062–6069Google Scholar
  86. Pascoe D, Carroll K, Karntanut W, Watts MM (2002) Toxicity of 17-ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A to the freshwater cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 43:56–63Google Scholar
  87. Pascoe D, Karntanut W, Müller CT (2003) Do pharmaceuticals affect freshwater invertebrates? A study with the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. Chemosphere 51:521–528Google Scholar
  88. Pereira CDS, Maranho LA, Cortez FS, Pusceddu FH, Santos AR, Ribeiro DA, Cesar A, Guimarães LL (2016) Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and cocaine in a Brazilian coastal zone. Sci Total Environ 549:148–154Google Scholar
  89. Pereira AMPT, Silva LJG, Laranjeiro CSM, Meisel LM, Lino CM, Pena A (2017) Human pharmaceuticals in Portuguese rivers: the impact of water scarcity in the environmental risk. Sci Total Environ 609:1182–1191Google Scholar
  90. Perina FC, Abessa DMS, Pinho GLL, Fillmann G (2011) Comparative toxicity of antifouling compounds on the development of sea urchin. Ecotoxicology 20(8):1870–1880Google Scholar
  91. Philip JM, Aravind UK, Aravindakumar CT (2018) Emerging contaminants in Indian environmental matrices—a review. Chemosphere 190:307–326Google Scholar
  92. Pimentel MF, Lima DP, Martins LR, Beatriz A, Santaella ST, Costa-Lotufo LVC (2009) Ecotoxicological analysis of cashew nut industry effluents, specifically two of its major phenolic components, cardol and cardanol. Panam J Aquat Sci 4:363–368Google Scholar
  93. Planelló R, Martínez-Guitarte JL, Morcillo G (2008) The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A increases the expression of HSP70 and acdysone receptor gene in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius. Chemosphere 71:1870–1876Google Scholar
  94. Pubchem (2018) Open chemistry database. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. Accessed 15 June 2018
  95. Ribeiro C, Tiritan ME, Rocha E, Rocha MJ (2009) Seasonal and spatial distribution of several endocrine-disrupting compounds in the Douro river estuary, Portugal. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:1–11Google Scholar
  96. Rochester JR (2013) Bisphenol A and human health: a review of the literature. Reprod Toxicol 42:132–155Google Scholar
  97. Rodríguez EM, Medesani DA, Fingerman M (2007) Endocrine disruption in crustaceans due to pollutants: a review. Comp Biochem Physiol, Part A 146:661–671Google Scholar
  98. Rodriguez-Narvaez OM, Peralta-Hernandez JM, Goonetilleke A, Bandala ER (2017) Treatment technologies for emerging contaminants in water: a review. Chem Eng J 323:361–380Google Scholar
  99. Roepke TA, Snyder MJ, Cherr GN (2005) Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations. Aquat Toxicol 71:155–173Google Scholar
  100. Saeed T, Al-Jandal N, Abusam A, Taqi H, Al-Khabbaz A, Zafar J (2017) Source and levels of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in Kuwait’s coastal areas. Mar Pollut Bull 118:407–412Google Scholar
  101. Santos DM, Buruaem L, Gonçalves RM, Williams M, Abessa DMS, Kookana R, Marchi MRR (2018) Multiresidue determination and predicted risk assessment of contaminants of emerging concern in marine sediments from the vicinities of submarine sewage outfalls. Mar Pollut Bull 129:299–307Google Scholar
  102. Sargis RM, Johnson DN, Choudhury RA, Brady MJ (2010) Environmental endocrine disruptors promote adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 cell line through glucocorticoid receptor activation. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18(7):1283–1288Google Scholar
  103. Seachrist DD, Bonk KW, Ho S, Prins GS, Soto AM, Keri RA (2016) A review of the carcinogenic potential of bisphenol A. Reprod Toxicol 59:167–182Google Scholar
  104. Small C, Nicholls RJ (2003) A global analysis of human settlement in coastal zones. J Coast Res 19:584–599Google Scholar
  105. Smith K (2011) We are seven billion. Nat Clim Chang 7:331–335Google Scholar
  106. Solomon KR, Giesy JP, LaPoint TW, Giddings JM, Richards RP (2012) Ecological risk assessment of atrazine in North American surface waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 32:10–11Google Scholar
  107. Straub JA (2002) Environmental risk assessment for new human pharmaceuticals in the European Union according to the draft guideline/discussion paper of January 2001. Toxicol Lett 131:137–143Google Scholar
  108. Stumpf M, Ternes TA, Wilken R-D, Rodrigues SV, Baumann W (1999) Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sci Total Environ 225:135–141Google Scholar
  109. Ternes TA (1998) Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers. Water Res 32:3245–3260Google Scholar
  110. UNEP/IPCS – United Nations Environment Programme/International Programme on Chemical Safety, (1999). Chemical risk assessment. Human risk assessment, environmental risk assessment and ecological risk assessment. World Health Organization, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  111. USEPA – United States Environmental Protection Agency (1995) Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to west coast marine and estuarine organisms. Cincinnati, OhioGoogle Scholar
  112. USEPA – United States Environmental Protection Agency (2008) White paper: aquatic life criteria for contaminants of emerging concern. Part I—general challenges and recommendations. Emerging Contaminants Workgroup, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  113. Vandenbergh GF, Adriaens D, Verslycke T, Janssen CR (2003) Effects of 17a-ethinylestradiol on sexual development of the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 54:216–222Google Scholar
  114. Vidal-Dorsch DE, Bay SM, Maruya K, Snyder SA, Trenholm RA, Vanderford BJ (2012) Contaminants of emerging concern in municipal wastewater effluents and marine receiving water. Environ Toxicol Chem 31(12):2674–2682Google Scholar
  115. Vikas M, Dwarakish GS (2015) Coastal pollution: a review. Aquat Procedia 4:381–388Google Scholar
  116. Vogeler S, Bean TP, Lyons BP, Galloway TS (2016) Dynamics of nuclear receptor gene expression during Pacific oyster development. Dev Biol 16:1–13Google Scholar
  117. Wang Y, Hu L, Wang Q, Lu G, Li Y (2014) Adsorption behaviors of 17 α-ethinylestradiol in sediment-water system in Northern Taihu Lake, China. Sci World J 2014:1–6Google Scholar
  118. Watts MM, Pascoe D, Carroll K (2001) Survival and precopulatory behaviour of Gammarus pulex (L.) exposed to two xenoestrogens. Water Res 35(10):2347–2352Google Scholar
  119. Webb S (2001) In: Kummerer K (ed) Pharmaceuticals in the environment. Sources, fate, effects and risks. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  120. Wilhelmsson D, Thompson RC, Holmström K, Lindén O, Eriksson-Hägg H (2013) Marine pollution. In: Noone KJ, Sumaila UR, Diaz RJ (eds) Managing ocean environments in a changing climate, 1st edn. Elsevier, Stockholm, pp 127–169Google Scholar
  121. Wilkinson J, Hooda PS, Barker J, Barton S, Swinden J (2017) Occurrence, fate and transformation of emerging contaminants in water: an overarching review of the field. Environ Pollut 231:954–970Google Scholar
  122. Yuan S, Jiang X, Xia X, Zhang H, Zheng S (2013) Detection, occurrence and fate of 22 psychiatric pharmaceuticals in psychiatric hospital and municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China. Chemosphere 90:2520–2525Google Scholar
  123. Zhang Y, Wang Q, Ji Y, Zhang Q, Wu H, Xie J, Zhao J (2014) Identification and mRNA expression of two 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis following exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 37:1243–1255Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Ciências do Mar (LABOMAR)Universidade Federal do CearáFortalezaBrazil
  2. 2.Núcleo de Estudos em Poluição e Ecotoxicologia Aquática (NEPEA)Campus Experimental do Litoral Paulista (UNESP)São VicenteBrazil

Personalised recommendations