Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18533–18540 | Cite as

Reprotoxicity of 4-nonylphenol to Biomphalaria alexandrina snails at certain temperatures

  • Marwa T. A. Abdel–WarethEmail author
  • Sara S. M. Sayed
Research Article


One of the most common compounds in pesticide formulations, plastics, and papers is 4-nonylphenol (4-NP). It is contained in agricultural, industrial, and wastewater effluents, which when discharged into surface waters affect aquatic fauna. Therefore, the present study aimed to use Biomphalaria alexandrina snails to evaluate the chronic toxicity of 4-NP. Its concentrations in collected water samples from Giza Governorate ranged from 400 to 1600 μg/l. Based on these environmentally relevant concentrations, laboratory experiments were carried out using standard 4-NP to investigate the effect of three concentrations; namely 400, 750, and 1600 μg/l. Survival rate of the exposed snails to 4-NP concentrations was affected after 4 weeks. Reproduction of the exposed snails to 4-NP concentrations was lower than that of the control at 30 °C, while the exposed snails to 400 μg/l of 4-NP showed maximum reproduction at 15 °C. The lowest hatchability percentage was recorded with egg masses laid by the exposed snails to 400 and 1600 μg/l of 4-NP at 15 and 30 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the results showed fluctuated levels of progesterone, estradiol, and testosterone depending upon the concentration and the temperature, which played a key role in determining the degree of 4-NP toxicity.


Estradiol 4-Nonylphenol Progesterone Snails Temperature Testosterone 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marwa T. A. Abdel–Wareth
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sara S. M. Sayed
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Research and Medical Malacology DepartmentTheodor Bilharz Research InstituteGizaEgypt

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