Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18017–18031 | Cite as

The possible global hazard of cell phone radiation on thyroid cells and hormones: a systematic review of evidences

  • Jafar Fatahi Asl
  • Bagher Larijani
  • Mehrnoosh Zakerkish
  • Fakher RahimEmail author
  • Kiarash Shirbandi
  • Rasoul Akbari
Review Article


The aim of this review was to investigate the effects of possible harmful waves from either cell phone use or being within the range of the cell phone from 450 to 3800 MHz on the thyroid cells and hormones. Eight electronic datasets were systematically searched using MeSH terms, including “cell phone,” “mobile phone,” “GSM,” “radio frequency,” “smartphone,” “triiodothyronine,” “thyroxin,” “thyroid-stimulating hormone,” “T3,” “T4,” “TSH,” and “morphological” and all possible combinations, to identify relevant studies published up to Dec 2018. We also manually searched the reference lists of potentially selected studies to identify further relevant publications. About 161 relevant studies were initially found. After screening titles and abstracts, 139 studies were excluded, and finally 22 studies (comprising 7182 cases) were included in the qualitative synthesis. Of the 22 included studies, 11 studies reported changes in T3 and T4 levels (six reported a decrease in T3 levels and one reported increase in it); moreover, five found decreased T4 levels and two studies an increased level. In other 10 studies, TSH alteration was reported. Of these, two studies reported a decrease in TSH level and one reported an increase in the hormone levels, while in the remaining studies non-significant changes were reported. Finally, seven studies examined histological changes in the thyroid gland follicles and showed that the volume of these cells was reduced. Based on the evidence discussed above, the reduction in diameter of thyroid follicles is potentially linked with cell phone radiation. Exposure may negatively influence the iodine uptake in the thyroid gland or increases temperature effect on the thyroid gland. However, further research are needed in order to show that the level of TSH and thyroid hormone suppression by microwave.


Cell phone Thyroid hormones Triiodothyronine Thyroxin Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 



This research was the result of a project affiliated by Deputy of Research Affairs, Metabolomics and Genomics Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiologic Technology, Faculty of ParamedicineAhvaz Jundishapur University of Medical SciencesAhvazIran
  2. 2.Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Research CenterAhvaz Jundishapur University of Medical SciencesAhvazIran
  4. 4.Clinical Research Development Unit, Golestan HospitalAhvaz Jundishapur University of Medical SciencesAhvazIran
  5. 5.Research Center of Thalassemia & Hemoglobinopathy, Health Research InstituteAhvaz Jundishapur University of Medical SciencesAhvazIran
  6. 6.Non-Ionizing Radiation Group (NIRG)Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN)TehranIran
  7. 7.Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Allied Health Sciences SchoolAhvaz Jundishapur University of Medical SciencesAhvazIran

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