Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19403–19410 | Cite as

Urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations and exposure predictors among pregnant women in the Laizhou Wan Birth Cohort (LWBC), China

  • Shasha Zhao
  • Caifeng Wang
  • Rui Pan
  • Rong Shi
  • Weiye WangEmail author
  • Ying TianEmail author
Research Article


Although BPA use is widespread and often detectable in humans, little is known about its exposure levels and potential exposure predictors in pregnant women in China. We investigated the BPA exposure levels in pregnant women and its health implications and potential exposure predictors. Urinary BPA levels were measured for 506 pregnant women in northern China. Hazard quotients (HQs) based on estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were conducted. Sociodemographic characteristics and food consumption during pregnancy were collected and seasons of sample collection were recorded. The detection rate of urinary BPA was 86.6% and the median concentrations were 0.48 μg/L (1.05 μg/g creatinine). The EDI (median = 0.008 μg/kg bw/day) was much lower than the recommended tolerable daily doses and the HQ (median = 0.002) much lower than 1. The urine collected in summer had significantly higher BPA levels than that collected in other seasons (β = 0.225; 95% CI − 0.008, 0.458; p = 0.03). Women “always consuming shellfish” had significantly higher BPA levels than those “seldom consuming shellfish” (β = 0.341; 95% CI 0.022, 0.66; p = 0.04). The study found a wide exposure to BPA among pregnant women in this region, which might be associated with seasonal variation and shellfish consumption. Although the HQs suggested no obvious risk, further attention to the comprehensive exposure and potential determinants should be paid in view of its endocrine-disrupting potential.


Urinary excretion BPA Pregnant women Seasonal variation Diet style Sociodemographic characteristics Risk assessment 



This study was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC1600500, 2016YFC1000203), the Interdisciplinary Program of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Youth Program YG2016QN69), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Key Program 81630085), and Shanghai Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning (20144Y0102).

Compliance with ethical standards

The research was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MOE-Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children’s Environmental Health, Xinhua HospitalShanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health, School of Public HealthShanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina
  3. 3.School of NursingShanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina

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