Sewage waste water application improves the productivity of diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars on a sandy loam soil

  • Muhammad Ijaz
  • Abdul Waheed
  • Sami Ul-AllahEmail author
  • Ahmad NawazEmail author
  • Allah Wasaya
  • Abdul Sattar
  • Ahmad Sher
Research Article


Water stress due to climate change is an emerging threat to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity in the arid regions of the world which will impact the future food security. In this scenario, the investigations are needed to check the feasibility of alternate sources of irrigation water to fulfill the irrigation demands of the crops in the arid regions. This 2-year study was aimed to investigate the influence of three irrigation sources (sewage water, canal water, and underground water) on the productivity of 10 wheat cultivars under an arid climate of Layyah, Pakistan. The results indicated that the number of fertile tillers, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield varied from 114 to 168 m−2, 34.8 to 53.3, 33.4 to 38.4 g, and 2.68 to 4.05 Mg ha−1, respectively in various wheat cultivars. The highest fertile tillers (168 m−2) were recorded in cultivar Gold-2016 followed by Aas-2011 (155 cm), AARI-2011 (153 m−2), and Ujala-2016 (150 m−2). The highest 1000-grain weight of 38.4 g was recorded in cultivar NARC-2016. The grains per spike (53.3) were the highest in cultivar Ujala-2016. The grain yields were the highest in cultivars Ujala-2016 (4.05 Mg ha−1) and Gold-2016 (3.91 Mg ha−1). The highest grain yield of 3.71 Mg ha−1 was recorded with sewage water irrigation against the grain yield of 3.18 and 2.91 Mg ha−1 in canal and underground water irrigation, respectively. There existed a strong co-relation of fertile tillers and grains per spike with the grain yield of wheat. Application of sewage water also enhanced the total nitrogen, extractable potassium, and available phosphorous in soil. In crux, the cultivation of recently bread wheat cultivars (viz. Ujala-2016, Gold-2016) and the irrigation of field with sewage water in the absence of canal water might be a viable option to boost wheat productivity under arid regions. A range of genetic variability existed for different traits in the cultivars; therefore, these can be used to breed wheat cultivars to be used for sewage water cultivation.


Climate change; Bread wheat Water shortage Sewage water Canal water Arid climate Wheat productivity Food security 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by ORIC, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Ijaz
    • 1
  • Abdul Waheed
    • 1
  • Sami Ul-Allah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmad Nawaz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Allah Wasaya
    • 1
  • Abdul Sattar
    • 1
  • Ahmad Sher
    • 1
  1. 1.College of AgricultureBahauddin Zakariya UniversityBahadur Sub-Campus LayyahPakistan

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