Decomposition of Cameroon’s CO2 emissions from 2007 to 2014: an extended Kaya identity

  • Jean EngoEmail author
Research Article


To effectively combat global warming, an enormous reduction in CO2 emissions is required. Cameroon, which is currently the largest emitter of CO2 in the CEMAC subregion, has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 32% by 2035. However, previous studies in Cameroon have only addressed the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions without estimating all causal relationships at the same time. Moreover, no study has yet decomposed this country’s CO2 emissions to date. To fill these research gaps and further assess the determinants of these CO2 emissions, an extended Kaya identity and the Logarithm Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) have been applied in this paper to identify, quantify, and explain the main drivers of Cameroon’s CO2 emissions from 2007 to 2014. Seven effects were measured and the main findings show that carbon intensity and the emission factor increased by 0.57% and 107.50% respectively. Regarding contributions to the increase of CO2 emissions, the population effect was the most positive followed by the activity effect, whereas the energy intensity, the substitution of fossil fuels and the penetration of renewable energies have contributed to reduce the CO2 emission. To enable Cameroon to not only achieve the goals of its vision but also develop a low-carbon economy, this paper provides some proposed avenues that should be considered by policymakers.


Cameroon Energy intensity GDP per capita Population CO2 emission LMDI Kaya identity 



The author would like to dedicate this work to his family and more particularly to Mr Engo Ndongo Jean, Mrs Medjo Mba Agnes, Mr Atem Engo Léon, and Mr Eyenga Engo Lucien for their indescribable support. We would like to thank, the supervisor of this study, Professor. Dr. Yi-Ming Wei, to BIT – CEEP in China, and all those who are in charge of the scientific evaluation of this work, and more particularly the editors and reviewers.


  1. ACAT (2008) Emeutes de Fevrier 2008: Suivi des recommandations, 18. Retrieved from
  2. Ang BW (2004) Decomposition analysis for policymaking in energy:: which is the preferred method? Energy Policy 32(9):1131–1139. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ang BW (2005) The LMDI approach to decomposition analysis: a practical guide. Energy Policy 33(7):867–871. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ang BW (2015) LMDI decomposition approach: a guide for implementation. Energy Policy 86(Supplement C):233–238. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ang BW, Choi K-H (1997) Decomposition of aggregate energy and gas emission intensities for industry: a refined divisia index method. Energy J 18(3):59–73 Retrieved from CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ang BW, Liu FL (2001) A new energy decomposition method: perfect in decomposition and consistent in aggregation. Energy 26(6):537–548. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ang BW, Zhang FQ (2000) A survey of index decomposition analysis in energy and environmental studies. Energy 25(12):1149–1176. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ang BW, Zhang FQ, Choi K-H (1998) Factorizing changes in energy and environmental indicators through decomposition. Energy 23(6):489–495. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Asongu S, El Montasser G, Toumi H (2016) Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(7):6563–6573. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asumadu-Sarkodie S, Owusu PA (2016) Carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth: a multivariate and causality analysis for Ghana, 1971–2013. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(13):13508–13520. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ben Jebli M (2016) On the causal links between health indicator, output, combustible renewables and waste consumption, rail transport, and CO2 emissions: the case of Tunisia. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(16):16699–16715. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cansino JM, Sánchez-Braza A, Rodríguez-Arévalo ML (2015) Driving forces of Spain′s CO2 emissions: a LMDI decomposition approach. Renew Sust Energ Rev 48:749–759. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CIA (2018) The world factbook — central intelligence agency. Central Intelligence Agency (US). Retrieved from Accessed 15 Feb 2018
  14. Cogneau D, Herrera J (1995) IA DEVALUATION DU FCFA AU CAMEROUN:Bilan et perspectives, 23. Retrieved from
  15. Cui E, Ren L, Sun H (2016) Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(19):19667–19674. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Freitas LC, Kaneko S (2011) Decomposition of CO2 emissions change from energy consumption in Brazil: challenges and policy implications. Energy Policy 39(3):1495–1504. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dogan E, Turkekul B (2016) CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(2):1203–1213. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eisentraut, A. (2010). Sustainable production of second-generation biofuels -. IEA Energy Papers, pp 1–39.
  19. Engo J (2018) Decomposing the decoupling of CO2 emissions from economic growth in Cameroon. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(35):35451–35463.
  20. Engo J (2019a) Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth in cameroon. Resources and Environmental Economics 1(1):16–28.
  21. Engo J (2019b) Barriers related to the deployment of renewable energies in Cameroon and ways to strengthen policies. Resources and Environmental Economics 1(1):29–38.
  22. Feng K, Davis SJ, Sun L, Hubacek K (2015) Drivers of the US CO2 emissions 1997–2013. Nat Commun 6:7714. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. GCA (2016) CO2 territorial emissions in 2013 (MtCO2). Global Carbon Atlas, 2013, 0–3. Retrieved from Accessed 24 Mar 2018
  25. Hammond GP, Norman JB (2012) Decomposition analysis of energy-related carbon emissions from UK manufacturing. Energy 41(1):220–227. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hilaire N, Hervé KF (2012) TITRE : Effets de la croissance économique sur les émissions de CO 2 dans les Pays du Bassin du Congo, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  27. Hilaire N, Hervé KF, François K (2014) Atmospheric pollution and economic growth in Cameroon. J Int Bus Econ 2(3):171–187. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. ICCAM (2013) OPÉRATION ÉPERVIER:Les gestionnaires publics sous haute surveillance. Investir Au Cameroun (ICCAM), 13, 32. Retrieved from
  29. IEA (2017) CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. Oecd/Iea:1–155. Accessed 21 Mar 2018
  30. IEA-CMR (2018) Cameroon International Energy Agency Balances. Retrieved from file:///D:/BIT/MY-PAPRES/P-03/P03/Introduction/Cameroon.html. Accessed 04 Feb 2018Google Scholar
  31. İpek Tunç G, Türüt-Aşık S, Akbostancı E (2009) A decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from energy use: Turkish case. Energy Policy 37(11):4689–4699. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jahan S (2016) Human development report 2016 human development for everyone. United Nation Development Project, pp 1–271Google Scholar
  33. Jeong K, Kim S (2013) LMDI decomposition analysis of greenhouse gas emissions in the Korean manufacturing sector. Energy Policy 62:1245–1253. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kaya Y (1990) Impact of carbon dioxide emission on GNP growth: interpretation of proposed scenarios. Paris: Presentation to the Energy and Industry Subgroup, Response Strategies Working Group, IPCC. X’Pert Stress PW3208, Software for Residual Stress Analysis, PANalytical, The Netherlands,
  35. Li W, Lu C (2015) The research on setting a unified interval of carbon price benchmark in the national carbon trading market of China. Appl Energy 155(2015):728–739. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li W, Li H, Zhang H, Sun S (2015) The analysis of CO2 emissions and reduction potential in China’s transport sector. Math Probl Eng 1:1–12. Google Scholar
  37. Li W, Lu C, Ding Y, Zhang YW (2017a) The impacts of policy mix for resolving overcapacity in heavy chemical industry and operating national carbon emission trading market in China. Appl Energy 204:509–524. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Li X, Liao H, Du YF, Wang C, Wang JW, Liu Y (2017b) Carbon dioxide emissions from the electricity sector in major countries: a decomposition analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res:1–12.
  39. Liu Y, Zhou Y, Wu W (2015) Assessing the impact of population, income and technology on energy consumption and industrial pollutant emissions in China. Appl Energy 155:904–917. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mousavi B, Lopez NSA, Biona JBM, Chiu ASF, Blesl M (2017) Driving forces of Iran’s CO2 emissions from energy consumption: an LMDI decomposition approach. Appl Energy 206(August):804–814. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moutinho V, Moreira AC, Silva PM (2015) The driving forces of change in energy-related CO<inf>2</inf> emissions in eastern, western, northern and southern Europe: the LMDI approach to decomposition analysis. Renew Sust Energ Rev 50:1485–1499. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Noubissi Domguia E, Njangang H (2017) Croissance économique et dégradation de l’environnement au Cameroun: Croissance économique et dégradation de l’environnement. Afr Dev Rev 29:615–629. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. O’Mahony T (2013) Decomposition of Ireland’s carbon emissions from 1990 to 2010: an extended Kaya identity. Energy Policy 59:573–581. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Obadi SM, Korček M (2016) Drivers of CO2 emissions in the Slovak economy: the logarithmic mean Divisia index approach of decomposition. Ekonomicky Casopis 64(4):331–352Google Scholar
  45. OECD-AfDB (2001) African economic outlook. OECD-AfDB, pp 71–82. Retrieved from
  46. Paramati SR, Sinha A, Dogan E (2017) The significance of renewable energy use for economic output and environmental protection: evidence from the Next 11 developing economies. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(15):13546–13560. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Peters GP, Andrew RM, Canadell JG, Fuss S, Jackson RB, Korsbakken JI, le Quéré C, Nakicenovic N (2017) Key indicators to track current progress and future ambition of the Paris Agreement. Nat Clim Chang 7(2):118–122. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Review C (2017) 2017 country review. Retrieved from
  49. Roinioti A, Koroneos C (2017) The decomposition of CO2emissions from energy use in Greece before and during the economic crisis and their decoupling from economic growth. Renew Sust Energ Rev 76(March):448–459. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Román-Collado R, Morales-Carrión AV (2018) Towards a sustainable growth in Latin America: a multiregional spatial decomposition analysis of the driving forces behind CO 2 emissions changes. Energy Policy 115(January):273–280. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shuai C, Shen L, Jiao L, Wu Y, Tan Y (2017) Identifying key impact factors on carbon emission: evidences from panel and time-series data of 125 countries from 1990 to 2011. Appl Energy 187:310–325. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sumabat AK, Lopez NS, Yu KD, Hao H, Li R, Geng Y, Chiu ASF (2016) Decomposition analysis of Philippine CO 2 emissions from fuel combustion and electricity generation. Appl Energy 164:795–804. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sun C, Ding D, Yang M (2017) Estimating the complete CO2emissions and the carbon intensity in India: from the carbon transfer perspective. Energy Policy 109(March):418–427. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Transparency International (2016) Transparency international corruption perceptions index 2016. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2016, 9. Retrieved from Accessed 24 Dec 2017
  55. UNEP (2016) Cameroon: consumption, energy resources, energy, (Table 1), 2013–2016. Retrieved from Accessed 20 Nov 2017
  56. Wang M, Feng C (2017) Decomposition of energy-related CO2 emissions in China: an empirical analysis based on provincial panel data of three sectors. Appl Energy 190(Supplement C):772–787. Google Scholar
  57. WDI (2018) World development indicators | DataBank. The World Bank. Retrieved from Accessed 4 Mar 2018
  58. Wesseh PK, Lin B (2016) Modeling environmental policy with and without abatement substitution: a tradeoff between economics and environment? Appl Energy 167:34–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Xie R, Fang J, Liu C (2017) The effects of transportation infrastructure on urban carbon emissions. Appl Energy 196(Supplement C):199–207. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Xu L, Chen N, Chen Z (2017) Will China make a difference in its carbon intensity reduction targets by 2020 and 2030? Appl Energy 203:874–882. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zerbo E (2017) Income-environment relationship in sub-Saharan African countries: further evidence with trade openness. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(19):16488–16502. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhang X, Qi T y, Ou X m, Zhang X l (2017) The role of multi-region integrated emissions trading scheme: a computable general equilibrium analysis. Appl Energy 185(July 2012):1860–1868. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhou Y, Liu Y (2016) Does population have a larger impact on carbon dioxide emissions than income? Evidence from a cross-regional panel analysis in China. Appl Energy 180:800–809. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Management and EconomicsBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Center for Energy and Environmental PolicySchool of Management and Economics Beijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations