Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18541–18553 | Cite as

Degradation of endosulfan by high-energy ball milling with CaO: process and mechanism

  • Weichuan Qiao
  • Xiuxiu Ge
  • Yunhao Zhang
  • Yang Luo
  • Lei Yu
  • Haizhu WangEmail author
  • Ying Xu
  • Quhui Wang
Research Article


Mechanochemical degradation (MCD) technology has shown its remarkable potential in the disposal of persistent organochlorines in a non-combustion manner. In the present study, endosulfan, as the newly listed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention, was investigated for its feasibility of mechanochemical destruction using high-energy ball milling. Using calcium oxide (CaO) as a co-milling reagent, the degradation efficiency of endosulfan was nearly 100% after ball milling for 60 min, while the dechlorination efficiency and the sulfate formation efficiency were delayed for endosulfan degradation. After ball milling for 120 min, the dechlorination efficiency and sulfate formation efficiency reached 87.55% and 26.28%, respectively. Based on the measurement results from various material characterization approaches, the main degradation pathway of endosulfan was proposed as sequential dechlorination followed by the destruction of hydrocarbon skeleton. The GC-MS analysis confirmed that complete desulfurization and dechlorination had been realized finally. This study provides an option for the way toward the efficient and rapid destruction of endosulfan as a new POPs using mechanochemical technology.


Mechanochemical technology Endosulfan Organochlorine pesticides High-energy ball milling Calcium oxide Degradation 


Funding information

This work is supported by the National Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China (Grant No. 21707010), the 13th five-year Science and Technology research foundation of Education Department of Jilin Province (Grant No. JJKH20181114KJ), the Innovation Science Foundation of Changchun University of Science and Technology (Grant No. XJJLG-2016-07), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5020_MOESM1_ESM.docx (5.1 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 5210 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Biology and the EnvironmentNanjing Forestry UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.State Key Lab of High Power Semiconductor Laser of Changchun University Science and TechnologyChangchun University Science and TechnologyChangchunChina
  3. 3.School of PhysicsNortheast Normal UniversityChangchunChina

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