Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18421–18433 | Cite as

Assessment of pollutant removal processes and kinetic modelling in vertical flow constructed wetlands at elevated pollutant loading

  • Manoj Kumar
  • Rajesh SinghEmail author
Research Article


Constructed wetland (CW), an ecological wastewater treatment technology, is low cost and easily to operate. Vertical flow constructed wetland (VF-CW) systems have been used to treat various wastewaters across the world. The present work exhibits the detail study of five type’s multi-layered vertically constructed wetlands operated at 24 h hydraulic retention time under semi-continuous vertical flow mode. Except N-NO3, all the pollutants were sufficient removal in iron scraps constructed wetland (ISs-CW). The highest average pollutant removal efficiency achieved in ISs-CW was 85.04%, 77.57%, 85.99%, 62.01% and 88.91% for N-NH4+, N-NO2+, total nitrogen, total phosphate and sulphate respectively. The present CWs planted with Eichhornia crassipes is a promising system for municipal wastewater treatment. The first-order kinetic modelling was best suited for the removal rate since it presents higher R2, rate constant (k) and B values.


Constructed wetlands Wastewater Iron scraps Bacterial consortium enrichment Eichhornia crassipes 



One of the authors Kumar M. is grateful to University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi for awarding NFSC Fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentCentral University of GujaratGandhinagarIndia

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