Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18593–18603 | Cite as

Level of selected heavy metals in surface dust collected from electronic and electrical material maintenance shops in selected Western Oromia towns, Ethiopia

  • Bilise Getachew
  • Meseret Amde
  • Bayissa Leta DannoEmail author
Research Article
  • 53 Downloads

Abstract

Surface dusts from electronic and electrical material maintenance workshops may present significant environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to determine levels of selected heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Fe) in surface dust samples collected from electronic and electrical device maintenance workshops located in Ambo, Gedo, and Nekemte towns in Ethiopia. An optimized wet digestion procedure (acid mixture, 3 mL HNO3, 2 mL HClO4, and H2O2; digestion time, 2 h; digestion temperature, 200 °C) was employed prior to the metals determination by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The average amounts of the metals were found to be in the ranges of 73,970–58,980, 59,290–51,120, 8570–5778, 1273–1126, 708.9–261.6, 111.7–101.0, 114.9–89.50, and 12.30–9.620 mg/kg for Pb, Fe, Cu, Cr, Zn, Co, Ni, and Cd, respectively. The results showed that the investigated surface dust samples contained significant levels of the analyzed heavy metals compared to soil samples collected from the corresponding control sites. The heavy metal concentrations in the investigated samples from the three towns followed a decreasing order Pb > Fe >> Cu >> Cr > Zn > Co > Ni > Cd, indicating the presence of elevated amount of Pb in the surface dust samples. The significantly high levels of heavy metals detected in all surface dust samples from electronic and electrical device maintenance shops could be inferred to the seepage of these metals from electronic materials during the maintenance procedures. Based on the result obtained, we strongly recommend a strict monitoring and disposal (policy issue) of wastes generated from electronic and electrical device maintenance shops.

Keywords

E-waste Heavy metals Surface dust Wet digestion Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy Electronic maintenance shops Policy issue 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would also like to thank and appreciate Ambo and Haramaya University, Department of Chemistry, for the laboratory facilities.

Funding

This project was financially supported by Ambo University (Project No: CNCS-CHEM-18-2).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5018_MOESM1_ESM.docx (67 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 66 kb)

References

  1. Adaramodu AA, Osuntogun AO, Ehi-Eromosele CO (2012) Heavy metal concentration of surface dust present in e-waste components: the Westminister electronic market, Lagos case study. Resour Environ 2(2):9–13Google Scholar
  2. Adeyi AA, Oyeleke P (2017) Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil from e-waste dumpsites in Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria. J Heal and Poll 7(15):71–84Google Scholar
  3. Baldé, C.P., Forti V., Gray, V., Kuehr, R., Stegmann, P. (2017) The global e-waste monitor—2017, United Nations University (UNU), International Telecommunication Union (ITU) & International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), Bonn/Geneva/Vienna. https://collections.unu.edu/eserv/UNU:6341/Global-E-waste_Monitor_2017__electronic_single_pages_.pdf. Accessed on January 12, 2019Google Scholar
  4. Boyhan WS (1992) Approaches to eliminating chlorofluorocarbon use in manufacturing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(3):812–814Google Scholar
  5. Brigden, K., Labunska, I., Santillo, D. and Allsopp, M. (2005) Recycling of electronic wastes in China and India: workplace and environmental contamination. [Accessed on 10th September 2018]. Available at: http://www.greenpeace.org/india/press/reports/recycling-of-electronic-wastes
  6. Calabrese EJ, Barnes R, Stanek EJ, Pastides H, Gilbert CE, Veneman P, Wang XR, Lasztity A, Kostecki PT (1989) How much soil do young children ingest: an epidemiologic study. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 10(2):123–137Google Scholar
  7. Calabrese EJ, Stanek EJ, Gilbert CE, Barnes RM (1990) Preliminary adult soil ingestion estimates: results of a pilot study. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 12(1):88–95Google Scholar
  8. Calderón J, Ortiz-Pérez D, Yáñez L, Díaz-Barriga F (2003) Human exposure to metals. Pathways of exposure, biomarkers of effect, and host factors. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 56(1):93–103Google Scholar
  9. Chen CY, Stemberger RS, Klaue B, Blum JD, Pickhardt PC, Folt CL (2000) Accumulation of heavy metals in food web components across a gradient of lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 45(7):1525–1536Google Scholar
  10. Dinis, M. D. L., and Fiuza, A. (2011). Exposure assessment to heavy metals in the environment: measures to eliminate or reduce the exposure to critical receptors. In: Simeonov L., Kochubovski M., Simeonova B. (eds) Environmental heavy metal pollution and effects on child mental development. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environ Security: 27–50Google Scholar
  11. Dragović S, Mihailović N, Gajić B (2008) Heavy metals in soils: distribution, relationship with soil characteristics and radionuclides and multivariate assessment of contamination sources. Chemosphere 72(3):491–495Google Scholar
  12. Dwivedy M, Mittal RK (2012) An investigation into e-waste flows in India. J Clean Prod 37:229–242Google Scholar
  13. Fang W, Yang Y, Xu Z (2013) PM10 and PM2.5 and health risk assessment for heavy metals in a typical factory for cathode ray tube television recycling. Environ Sci Technol 47(21):12469–12476Google Scholar
  14. Guo Y, Huang C, Zhang H, Dong Q (2009) Heavy metal contamination from electronic waste recycling at Guiyu, Southeastern China. J Environ Qual 38(4):1617–1626Google Scholar
  15. Hapke HJ. (1996) Heavy metal transfer in the food chain to humans. In: Rodriguez-Barrueco C. (eds) Fertilizers and environment. Developments in plant and soil sciences, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 66: 431–436Google Scholar
  16. Heeks R, Subramanian L, Jones C (2015) Understanding e-waste Management in Developing countries: strategies, determinants, and policy implications in the Indian ICT sector. Info Techno for Develop 21(4):653–667Google Scholar
  17. Hino T, Agawa R, Moriya Y, Nishida M, Tsugita Y, Araki T (2009) Techniques to separate metal from waste printed circuit boards from discarded personal computers. J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 11(1):42–54Google Scholar
  18. Hossain MS, Al-Hamadani SMZF, Rahman MT (2015) E-waste: a challenge for sustainable development. J Heal Pol 5(9):3–11Google Scholar
  19. Iqbal J, Carney WA, LaCaze S, Theegala CS (2010) Metals determination in biodiesel (B100) by ICP-OES with microwave assisted acid digestion. Open Analy Chem Journal 4(1):18–26Google Scholar
  20. Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN (2014) Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Slovak Toxico Soci 7(2):60–72Google Scholar
  21. Jinhui L, Huabo D, Pixing S (2011) Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis. Waste Manag Res 29(7):727–738Google Scholar
  22. Labunska I, Harrad S, Santillo P, Brigden K (2013) Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, sediment and dust samples collected from various electronic waste recycling sites within Guiyu Town, southern China. Environ Sci: Process Impacts 15(2):503–511Google Scholar
  23. Leung AO, Cai ZW, Wong MH (2006) Environmental contamination from electronic waste recycling at Guiyu, Southeast China. J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 8(1):21–33Google Scholar
  24. Leung AO, Luksemburg WJ, Wong AS, Wong MH (2007) Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil and combusted residue at Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in Southeast China. Environ Sci Technol 41(8):2730–2737Google Scholar
  25. Leung AO, Duzgoren-Aydin NS, Cheung KC, Wong MH (2008) Heavy metals concentrations of surface dust from e-waste recycling and its human health implications in Southeast China. Environ Sci Technol 42(7):2674–2680Google Scholar
  26. Lim SR, Schoenung JM (2010) Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities. Waste Manag 30(8–9):1653–1660Google Scholar
  27. Luo Y, Luo X, Yang Z, Yu X, Yuan J, Chen S, Mai B (2008) Studies on heavy metal contamination by improper handling of e-waste and its environmental risk evaluation. II. Heavy metal contamination in surface soils on e-waste disassembling workshops within villages and the adjacent agricultural soils. Asian J Ecotoxicol 3:123–129Google Scholar
  28. Murgueytio AM, Evans RG, Sterling D, Serrano F, Roberts D (1998) Behaviors and blood lead levels of children in a lead-mining area and a comparison community. J Environ Health 60(6):14–21Google Scholar
  29. Olubanjo K, Osibanjo O, Chidi N (2015) Evaluation of Pb and Cu contents of selected component parts of waste personal computers. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 19(3):470–477Google Scholar
  30. Perkins DN, Burne DM, Nxele T, Sly PD (2014) E-waste: a global hazard. Ann Glob Health 80(4):286–295Google Scholar
  31. Pinto VN (2008) E-waste hazard: the impending challenge. Indian J Occup Environ Med 12(2):65–70Google Scholar
  32. Qu C-S, Ma Z-W, Yang J, Liu Y, Bi J, Huang L (2012) Human exposure pathways of heavy metals in a lead-zinc mining area, Jiangsu Province, China. PLoS One 7(11):e46793Google Scholar
  33. Rehman K, Fatima F, Waheed I, Akash MSH (2018) Prevalence of exposure of heavy metals and their impact on health consequences. J Cell Biochem 119(1):157–184Google Scholar
  34. Robinson BH (2009) E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Sci Total Environ 408(2):183–191Google Scholar
  35. Rogers ML, Lucht JA, Sylvaria AJ, Cinga J, Vanderslice R, Vivier PM (2014) Primary prevention of Lead poisoning: protecting children from unsafe housing. Am J Public Health 104(8):e119–e124Google Scholar
  36. Shamim A, K AM (2015) E-waste trading impact on public health and ecosystem services in developing countries. J Waste Resources 5:188Google Scholar
  37. Singh M, Thind PS, John S (2018a) An analysis on e-waste generation in Chandigarh: quantification, disposal pattern and future predictions. J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 20(3):1625–1637Google Scholar
  38. Singh M, Thind PS, John S (2018b) Health risk assessment of the workers exposed to the heavy metals in e-waste recycling sites of Chandigarh and Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Chemosphere 203:426–433Google Scholar
  39. Stanek EJ, Calabrese EJ, Barnes R, Pekow P (1997) Soil ingestion in adults—results of a second pilot study. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 36(3):249–257Google Scholar
  40. Tang X, Shen C, Shi D, Cheema SA, Khan MI, Zhang C, Chen Y (2010) Heavy metal and persistent organic compound contamination in soil from Wenling: an emerging e-waste recycling city in Taizhou area, China. J Hazard Mater 173(1–3):653–660Google Scholar
  41. Tchounwou PB, Yedjou CG, Patlolla AK, Suttan DJ (2012) Heavy metals toxicity and the environment. Exp Suppl 101:133–164Google Scholar
  42. Tsydenova O, Bengtsson M (2011) Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste Manag 31(1):45–58Google Scholar
  43. Vats MC, Singh SK (2014) E-waste characteristic and its disposal. Am Assoc Sci and Techno 1(2):49–61Google Scholar
  44. Willner J, Fornalczyk A (2013) Extraction of metals from electronic waste by bacterial leaching. Environ Prot Eng 39(1):197–208Google Scholar
  45. Wu C, Luo Y, Deng S, Teng Y, Song J (2014) Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in Southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater. Sci Total Environ 472:556–561Google Scholar
  46. Wu Q, Leung JYS, Geng X, Chen S, Huang X, Li H, Huang Z, Zhu L, Chen J, Lu Y (2015) Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals. Sci Total Environ 506–507:217–225Google Scholar
  47. Xing GH, Chan JKY, Leung AOW (2009) Environmental impact and human exposure to PCBs in Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in China. Environ Int 35(1):76–82Google Scholar
  48. Xu F, Liu Y, Wang J, Zhang W, Liu L, Wang J, Pan B, Lin K (2015) Characterization of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor dust of e-waste workshops: implication for on-site human exposure. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 22(7):5469–5480Google Scholar
  49. Zhu Z, Han Z, Bi X, Yang W (2012) The relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metal contents of indoor dust in e-waste recycling impacted area, Southeast China. Sci Total Environ 433:302–308Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational SciencesAmbo UniversityAmboEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational SciencesHaramaya UniversityDire DawaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations