Effect of selenium on the subcellular distribution of cadmium and oxidative stress induced by cadmium in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
- 47 Downloads
Cadmium (Cd) is absorbed readily by rice plants and is transferred to humans when contaminated rice is consumed. Adding selenium (Se) to the plant nutrient solutions reduces the accumulation of Cd in the rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. However, as the relevant underlying mechanism remains unclear, the aim of our study was to improve our understanding of the Se-mediated resistance to Cd stress in rice. We conducted hydroponic experiments to study the effects of selenite or selenate on Cd subcellular distribution and xylem transport in rice seedlings under Cd stress, and we investigated the antioxidative defense responses in the rice plants. We found that the supplementation of both Se forms decreased the Cd accumulations in the roots and shoots of the rice plants. The selenite addition significantly decreased the Cd contents in different subcellular fractions of the rice roots, increased the proportion of Cd distributed to soluble cytosol by 23.41%, and decreased the Cd distribution in the organelle by 28.74% in contrast with the treatment with Cd only. As regards the selenate addition, only the Cd distribution ratio of cytosol was increased by 13.07%. After adding selenite, a decrease of 55.86% in the Cd concentration in xylem sap was observed, whereas little change was found after treatment co-applied with selenate. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde(MDA) contents in the rice roots were elevated under Cd stress, and the addition of selenite and selenate decreased the H2O2 levels by 77.78% and 59.26%, respectively. Co-exposure to Cd and Se elevated the glutathione (GSH) accumulations in the rice shoots and roots, with the degree of increase being the following: co-applied with selenite > co-applied with selenate > Cd alone treatment. Exposure to Cd increased the catalase (CAT) activity in the roots significantly, whereas it decreased in the shoots. After selenite or selenate supplementation, the CAT activity in the rice roots increased compared with applying only Cd. Compared with the control, the addition of Cd or Se had no significant effect on the activities of peroxidase (POD) or ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Our results showed that Se affected the Cd accumulation in rice seedlings by altering the Cd subcellular distribution and decreasing the ROS induced by Cd stress. Such effects were more significant in the selenite than in the selenate applied treatment.
KeywordsRice Cadmium Selenium Subcellular distribution Oxidative stress
This work was supported financially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41471271).
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Deuticke B (1989) Oxidative membrane damage—a problem of lipid-peroxidation. Biol Chem H-S 370:618–618Google Scholar
- Filek M, Zembala M, Hartikainen H, Miszalski Z, Kornas A, Wietecka-Posluszny R, Walas P (2009) Changes in wheat plastid membrane properties induced by cadmium and selenium in presence/absence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 96:19–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-008-9455-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Freeman JL, Tamaoki M, Stushnoff C, Quinn CF, Cappa JJ, Devonshire J, Fakra SC, Marcus MA, McGrath SP, Hoewyk DV, Pilon-Smits EAH (2010) Molecular mechanisms of selenium tolerance and hyperaccumulation in Stanleya pinnata. Plant Physiol 153:1630–1652. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.110.156570 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fry SC (1986) Cross-linking of matrix polymers in the growing cell walls of angiosperms. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 37:165–186. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.37.060186.001121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- He JL, Qin JJ, Long LY, Ma YL, Li H, Li K, Jiang XN, Liu TX, Polle A, Liang ZS, Luo ZB (2011) Net cadmium flux and accumulation reveal tissue-specific oxidative stress and detoxification in Populus × canescens. Physiol Plant 143:50–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2011.01487.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jinadasa N, Collins D, Holford P, Milham PJ, Conroy JP (2016) Reactions to cadmium stress in a cadmium-tolerant variety of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.): is cadmium tolerance necessarily desirable in food crops? Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:5296–5306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5779-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kumar M, Bijo AJ, Baghel RS, Reddy CR, Jha B (2012) Selenium and Spermine alleviates cadmium induced toxicity in the red seaweed Gracilaria dura by regulating antioxidant system and DNA methylation. Plant Physiol Biochem 51:129–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2011.10.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu WX, Shang SH, Feng X, Zhang GP, Wu FB (2015) Modulation of exogenous selenium in cd-induced changes in antioxidative metabolism, Cd uptake and photosynthetic performance in the two tobacco genotypes differing in Cd tolerance. Environ Toxicol Chem 34:92–99. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.2760 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Malik JA, Goel S, Kaur N, Sharma S, Singh I, Nayyar H (2012) Selenium antagonizes the toxic effects of arsenic on mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) plants by restricting its uptake and enhancing the antioxidative and detoxification mechanisms. Environ Exp Bot 77:242–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2011.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Qiu Q, Wang YT, Yang ZY, Yuan JG (2011) Effects of phosphorus supplied in soil on subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in two Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.) cultivars differing in cadmium accumulation. Food Chem Toxicol 49:2260–2267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.06.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sandalio LM, Dalurzo HC, Gomez M, Romero-Puertas MC, Del Rio LA (2001) Regulation of growth, development and whole organism physiology. Cadmium-induced changes in the growth and oxidative metabolism of pea plants. J Exp Bot 52:2115–2126. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/52.364.2115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schiavon M, Berto C, Malagoli M, Trentin A, Sambo P, Dall’Acqua S, Pilon-Smits EA (2016) Selenium biofortification in radish enhances nutritional quality via accumulation of methyl-selenocysteine and promotion of transcripts and metabolites related to glucosinolates, phenolics, and amino acids. Front Plant Sci 7:1371. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01371 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shanker K, Mishra S, Srivastava S, Srivastava R, Dass S, Prakash S, Prakash MM (1995) Effect of selenite and selenate on plant uptake of cadmium by kidney bean (Phaseolus mungo) with reference to Cd-Se interaction. Chem Speciat Bioavailab 7:97–100. https://doi.org/10.1080/09542299.1995.11083251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wu ZC, Wang FH, Liu S, Du YQ, Li FR, Du RY, Wen D, Zhao J (2017) Comparative responses to silicon and selenium in relation to antioxidant enzyme system and the glutathione-ascorbate cycle in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris, L. ssp. chinensis, var. utilis) under cadmium stress. Environ Exp Bot 133:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2016.07.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar