Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19512–19522 | Cite as

Water uses, treatment, and sanitation practices in rural areas of Chandigarh and its relation with waterborne diseases

  • Khaiwal RavindraEmail author
  • Suman Mor
  • Venkatamaha Lakshmi Pinnaka
Research Article


Availability of clean water and adequate sanitation facilities are the principal measures for limiting various waterborne diseases. These basic amenities are critical for health and sustainable socio-economic development. This study attempted to assess the status of water and sanitation facilities and practices of the people living in rural areas of Chandigarh including awareness about the waterborne diseases. The community-based cross-sectional study design was adopted having 300 households across 12 villages of city Chandigarh. A standardized interview schedule was used to collect information related to water uses, storage, water treatment options, water conservation practices, personal hygiene, knowledge about waterborne diseases, and government schemes. The interview schedule was administered with the head of the family as a study approach during the door-to-door survey. Households in rural Chandigarh have municipal water supply for drinking as well as other domestic purposes. The mean per capita water usage was 67 ± 13.4 l. Most (68.6%) of the study participants reported that they do not treat water before drinking and store it in plastic bottles or bucket (58%). The survey shows that 97% of the household had functional toilets in their premises, remaining reported lack of finances, and space for construction as major barriers. Regarding personal hygiene, 83% of respondents wash hands with soap and rest used only water or ash. Observations made under the study highlighted the need to create awareness regarding the role of water and sanitation practices on health including knowledge about various government schemes to improve water quality, sanitation, and hygiene practices for better health.


Sanitation Hygiene Water treatment Handwashing Waterborne diseases 



Authors would like to thank Research Grant Cell, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India for funding this study via letter no. 71/5-Edu/12/2012 dated 7/8/2013. This study was approved by the Institute of Ethics Committee, PGIMER via letter no. Histopath/13/NK/2428 dated 12/8/12.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics approval and informed consent

Written informed consent was also obtained from the participants enrolled for the study. All data has been kept confidential.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_4964_MOESM1_ESM.docx (202 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 201 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khaiwal Ravindra
    • 1
    Email author
  • Suman Mor
    • 2
  • Venkatamaha Lakshmi Pinnaka
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Public HealthPost Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)ChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environment StudiesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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