Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19512–19522 | Cite as

Water uses, treatment, and sanitation practices in rural areas of Chandigarh and its relation with waterborne diseases

  • Khaiwal RavindraEmail author
  • Suman Mor
  • Venkatamaha Lakshmi Pinnaka
Research Article

Abstract

Availability of clean water and adequate sanitation facilities are the principal measures for limiting various waterborne diseases. These basic amenities are critical for health and sustainable socio-economic development. This study attempted to assess the status of water and sanitation facilities and practices of the people living in rural areas of Chandigarh including awareness about the waterborne diseases. The community-based cross-sectional study design was adopted having 300 households across 12 villages of city Chandigarh. A standardized interview schedule was used to collect information related to water uses, storage, water treatment options, water conservation practices, personal hygiene, knowledge about waterborne diseases, and government schemes. The interview schedule was administered with the head of the family as a study approach during the door-to-door survey. Households in rural Chandigarh have municipal water supply for drinking as well as other domestic purposes. The mean per capita water usage was 67 ± 13.4 l. Most (68.6%) of the study participants reported that they do not treat water before drinking and store it in plastic bottles or bucket (58%). The survey shows that 97% of the household had functional toilets in their premises, remaining reported lack of finances, and space for construction as major barriers. Regarding personal hygiene, 83% of respondents wash hands with soap and rest used only water or ash. Observations made under the study highlighted the need to create awareness regarding the role of water and sanitation practices on health including knowledge about various government schemes to improve water quality, sanitation, and hygiene practices for better health.

Keywords

Sanitation Hygiene Water treatment Handwashing Waterborne diseases 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors would like to thank Research Grant Cell, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India for funding this study via letter no. 71/5-Edu/12/2012 dated 7/8/2013. This study was approved by the Institute of Ethics Committee, PGIMER via letter no. Histopath/13/NK/2428 dated 12/8/12.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics approval and informed consent

Written informed consent was also obtained from the participants enrolled for the study. All data has been kept confidential.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_4964_MOESM1_ESM.docx (202 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 201 kb)

References

  1. Aksan AM, Vasquez WF (2018) Quality perceptions and water treatment behavior at the household level. Water Econs Policy.  https://doi.org/10.1142/S2382624X18500248
  2. Ali F, Singh OP, Dutta A, Upadhyay MB, Bhaumik D (2018) Do community level interventions work in the same way on incidence and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea among under five children in rural and urban slum settings? Insights from stop Diarrhoea initiative in India. Journal of Global Health Reports 2:e2018003.  https://doi.org/10.29392/joghr.2.e2018003
  3. Bach C, Dauchy X, Chagnon MC, Etienne S (2012) Chemical migration in drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: a source of controversy. Water Res 46(3):571–583Google Scholar
  4. Baidya M, Shah S, Poudel P, Sharma S (2018) Microbial safety associations in point of use drinking water of Salyan, Nepal. Int J Environ Sci 3:25–34Google Scholar
  5. Banda K, Sarkar R, Gopal S, Govindarajan J, Harijan BB, Jeyakumar MB, Baidya M, Mitta P, Sadanala ME, Selwyn T, Suresh CR, Thomas VA, Devadason P, Kumar R, Selvapandian D, Kang G, Balraj V (2007) Water handling, sanitation and defecation practices in rural southern India: a knowledge, attitudes and practices study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:1124–1130Google Scholar
  6. Bermedo-Carrasco S, Bharadwaja L, Waldnerb CL (2018) Factors associated with drinking and being satisfied with tap water in Indigenous communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Int J Circumpolar Health 77(1).  https://doi.org/10.1080/22423982.2018.1466605
  7. Bhadra T, Das S, Hazra S, Barman BC (2018) Assessing the demand, availability and accessibility of potable water in Indian Sundarban biosphere reserve area. Int J Recent Sci Res 9(3):25437–25,443Google Scholar
  8. Bharadwaj A, Avinash S, Prassana M, Abhishek S, Sanjeet P, Pankaj C (2011) A community based cross sectional study on use of sanitary latrine in a rural setup in Maharashtra. Indian Assoc Prev Soc Med 4:89–93Google Scholar
  9. Bhattacharya M, Joan V, Jaiswal V (2011) Water handling and sanitation practices in rural community of Madhya Pradesh: a knowledge, attitude and practices study. Indian J Prev Soc Med 42:93–97Google Scholar
  10. Bilas R, Singh RP (1981) Rural water supply and the problem of health in village India, case of the Varanasi district. Geogr Med 11:65–85Google Scholar
  11. Bontemps C, Nauges C (2016) The impact of perceptions in averting-decision models: an application of the special regressor method to drinking water choices. Am J Agric Econ 98(1):297–313Google Scholar
  12. Brick T, Primrose B, Chandrasekhar R, Roy S, Muliyil J, Kang G (2004) Water contamination in urban South India: household storage practices and their implications for water safety and enteric infections. Int J Hyg Environ Health 207:473–480Google Scholar
  13. Bruchet A, Duguet JP (2004) Role of oxidants and disinfectants on the removal, masking and generation of tastes and odours. Water Sci Technol 49(9):297–306Google Scholar
  14. Cees B, Zoeteman J, Piet GJ (1974) Cause and identification of taste and odour compounds in water. SciTotal Environ 3:103–115Google Scholar
  15. Census of India (2011) District census handbook Chandigarh. Series 05 http://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/0401_PART_A_DCHB_CHANDIGARH.pdf
  16. Cha S, Mankadi PM, Elhag MS, Lee Y, Jin Y (2017) Trends of improved water and sanitation coverage around the globe between 1990 and 2010: inequality among countries and performance of official development assistance. Glob Health Action 10(1).  https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2017.1327170
  17. Claassen P, Hedimbi M, Basson K (2015) Use of affordable materials to improve water quality in peri-urban settlements in Windhoek, Namibia. Adv Microbiol 5:190–197Google Scholar
  18. Clasen T (2015) Household water treatment and safe storage to prevent diarrheal disease in developing countries. Curr Environ Health Rep 2:69–74Google Scholar
  19. Dahnn IS, Nesheim I, Gosh S, Dhawde R, Ghadge A, Wennberg AC (2017) variations of drinking water quality influenced by seasons and household interventions: a case study from rural Maharashtra, India. Environments 4(3):59Google Scholar
  20. de Doria MF, Pidgeon N, Hunter PR (2009) Perceptions of drinking water quality and risk and its effect on behaviour: a cross-national study. Sci Total Environ 407:5455–5464Google Scholar
  21. de Franca DM (2010) Factors influencing public perception of drinking water quality. Water Policy 12:1–19Google Scholar
  22. Dupont D, Adamowicz WL, Krupnick A (2014) Differences in water consumption choices in Canada: the role of socio-demographics, experiences, and perceptions of health risks. J Water Health 8:671–686Google Scholar
  23. Edokpayi JN, Rogawski ET, Kahler DM, Hill CL, Reynold C, Nyathi E, Smith JA, Odiyo JO, Samie A, Bessong P, Dillingham R (2018) Challenges to sustainable safe drinking water: a case study of water quality and use across seasons in rural communities in Limpopo province, South Africa. Water 12: 159.Google Scholar
  24. Ejemot-Nwadiaro RI, Ehiri JE, Meremikwu MM, Critchley JA (2008) Handwashing for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (9).  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004265.pub3
  25. Evandri MG, Tucci P, Bolle P (2000) Toxicological evaluation of commercial mineral water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate: a cytogenetic approach with allium cepa. Food Addit Contam 17(12):1037–1045Google Scholar
  26. Fan YY, Zheng JL, Ren JH, Luo J, Cui XY, Ma LQ (2014) Effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony and bisphenol A from polyethylene terephthalate drinking water bottles of China. Environ Pollut 192:113–120Google Scholar
  27. Goel NK, Pathak R, Gulati S, Balakrishnan S, Singh N, Singh H (2015) Surveillance of bacteriological quality of drinking water in Chandigarh, Northern India. J Water Health 13(3):931–938Google Scholar
  28. Gopal S, Sarkar R, Banda K, Govindrajan J, Harijan BB, Jeyakumar MB, Mitta P et al (2009) Study of water supply & sanitation practices in India using geographic information systems: some design & other considerations in a village setting. Indian J Med Res 129:233–241Google Scholar
  29. Harris J (2017) Public perception of drinking water in rural Thailand: Surveying households in Ban Thakonyang, Ban Don Man and Ban Nong Khon, in Kae Dam District in Mahasarakham Province. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati. Accessed from: https://etd.ohiolink.edu/pg_109392661154409::NO:10:P10_ETD_SUBID:148923
  30. Hazarika MP (2015) Sanitation and its impact on health: a study in Jorhat, Assam. IJSRP 5(10):1–11Google Scholar
  31. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and ICF (2017) National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015-16: India Mumbai. Accessed from: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/nfhs4.shtml
  32. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International (2007) National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) Volume I. In: MumbaiGoogle Scholar
  33. Jangam C, Pujari P (2019) Impact of on-site sanitation systems on groundwater sources in a coastal aquifer in Chennai, India. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(3):2079–2088Google Scholar
  34. Jensen PK, Ensink JH, Jayasinghe G, der Van HW, Cairncross S, Dalsgaard A (2002) Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries. Tropical Med Int Health 7:604–609Google Scholar
  35. Joshi A, Prasad S, Kasav JB, Segan M, Singh AK (2014) Water and sanitation hygiene knowledge attitude practice in urban slum settings. Global J Health Sci 6:1–23Google Scholar
  36. Juran L, Lahiri-Dutt K (2017) Waterscapes in transition: changing uses and perceptions of water in middle class homes in Kolkata, India. Water History 9(4):433–451Google Scholar
  37. Kang G, Ramakrishna BS, Daniel J, Mathan M, Mathan VI (2001) Epidemiological and laboratory investigations of outbreaks of diarrhoea in rural South India: implications for control of disease. Epidemiol Infect 127:107–112Google Scholar
  38. Kishore YJ, Naidu NK, Sreeharshikha D, Harikrishna B, Malhotra V (2018) Study to assess knowledge, perception and practices regarding Swachh Bharat Abhiyan among rural people of Nalgonda district in Telangana state. Int J Community Med Public Health 5(8):3399–3405Google Scholar
  39. Kuberan A, Singh AK, Kasav JB, Prasad S, Surapaneni KM, Upadhyay V, Joshi A (2015) Water and sanitation hygiene knowledge, attitude, and practices among household members living in rural setting of India. J Nat Sci Biol Med 6(1):69–74Google Scholar
  40. Lalitha RRN, Suchirithadevi S (2018) A study on existing domestic water sanitation practices in Adilabad District, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 7(6):22–30Google Scholar
  41. Leivadara SV, Nikolaou AD, Lekkas TD (2008) Determination of organic compounds in bottled waters. Food Chem 108(1):277–286Google Scholar
  42. Lloyd-Smith P, Schram C, Adamowicz W, Dupont D (2018) Endogeneity of risk perceptions in averting behavior models. Environ Resour Econ 69(2):217–246Google Scholar
  43. Long MW, Gortmaker SL, Patel AI, Stephen J, Onufrak CL, Wilking JD, Angie LC (2018) Public perception of quality and support for required access to drinking water in schools and parks. Am J Health Promot 32(1):72–74Google Scholar
  44. Machdar E, Van Der Steen N, Raschid-Sally L, Lens P (2013) Application of quantitative microbial risk assessment to analyze the public health risk from poor drinking water quality in a low income area in accra, Ghana. Sci Total Environ 449:134–142Google Scholar
  45. Mahajan M (2017) Prompt management averted an ongoing waterborne outbreak in the city beautiful, Chandigarh: an example to be followed. East J Med Sci 2(3):49–50Google Scholar
  46. Manna B, Nasrin D, Kanungo S, Roy S, Ramamurthy T (2013) Determinants of health care seeking for diarrhoeal illness in young children in urban slums of Kolkata, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:56–61Google Scholar
  47. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (2016) Swachh Survekshan Gramin. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  48. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (2017a) Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No. 845 on Households without Toilet Facilities. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India. Accessed from http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/Households%20without%20Toilet%20Facilities.pdf
  49. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (2017b) Annual report 2016-1. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of Indi, app 2016–2017Google Scholar
  50. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (2018). Swajal: a community led approach to Rural Piped Drinking Water Supply. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  51. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (2018) Swachh Survekshan: SS2018 National Ranking. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  52. Ministry of Urban Development (2015) Smart city mission. Ministry of Urban development, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  53. Mintz E, Reiff F, Tauxe R (1995) Safe water treatment and storage at home: a practical new strategy to prevent waterborne diseases. JAMA 273:948–953Google Scholar
  54. Mkwate RC, Chidya RCG, Wanda EMM (2016) Assessment of drinking water quality and rural household water treatment in Balaka District, Malawi. Phys Chem Earth 100:353–362Google Scholar
  55. Mohd R, Malik I (2017) Sanitation and hygiene knowledge, attitude and practices in urban setting of Bangalore: a cross-sectional study. J Community Med Health Educ 7:540Google Scholar
  56. Mor S, Kaur K, Ravindra K (2013a) Growth behavior studies of bread wheat plant exposed to Municipal Landfill Leachate. J Environ Biol 34:1083–1087Google Scholar
  57. Mor S, Bhatia N, Ravindra K (2013b) On-site sanitation system and their impact on groundwater quality. Water for health: healthy water, healthy life. Gulab Publisher, New Delhi & Basera Verlag, Germany, pp 146–152Google Scholar
  58. Mor S, Chhoden K, Negi P, Ravindra K (2018) Utilization of nano-alumina and activated charcoal for phosphate removal from wastewater. ENMM 7:15–23Google Scholar
  59. Nastiti A, Muntalif BS, Roosmini D, Sudradjat A, Meijerink SV, Smits AJM (2017) Coping with poor water supply in periurban Bandung, Indonesia: towardsa framework for understanding risks and aversion behaviours. Environ Urban 29(1):69–88Google Scholar
  60. National Centre for Disease Control (2019) Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare-Publishing, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  61. Negi P, Mor S, Khaiwal R (2018) Impact of landfill leachate on groundwater quality in three cities of North India and health risk assessment. Environment, Development and Sustainability  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-018-0257-1
  62. Nogueira G, Nakamura CV, Tognim MCB, Filho BAA, Filho BPD (2003) Microbiological quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities, Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 37(2):232–236Google Scholar
  63. Pachori R (2016) Drinking water and sanitation: household survey for knowledge and practice in rural area, Magudanchavadi, Salem district, India. Int J Community Med Public Health 3(7):1820–1828Google Scholar
  64. Packiyam R, Kananan S, Pachaiyappan S, Narayanan U (2016) Effect of storage containers on coliforms in household drinking water. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 5(1):461–477Google Scholar
  65. Paramjyothi BB, Pavani K, Subhashini N, Indira S (2017) A study to assess the level of knowledge on Swatch Bharat among student nurses at Narayana College of Nursing, Nellore. Int J Appl Res 3(7):203–205Google Scholar
  66. Puri S, Sarpal SS, Kumar A, Goel NK (2014) An outbreak of vibrio cholera in Vikas Nagar, Chandigarh, India. Med J DY Patil Univ 7(2):147–151Google Scholar
  67. Ramolefhe GT, Ngwenya BN, Ola Ama N, Nnyepi MS, Chimbari MJ (2017) Perceptions of safe water and accessibility by rural farming communities residing along the fringes of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records 49Google Scholar
  68. Ravindra K, Garg VK (2006) Distribution of fluoride in groundwater and its suitability assessment for drinking purpose. Int J Environ Health Res 16(2):163–166Google Scholar
  69. Ravindra K, Garg VK (2007) Hydro-chemical survey of groundwater of Hisar City and assessment of defluoridation methods used in India. Environ Monit Assess 132(1-3):33–43Google Scholar
  70. Ravindra K, Mor S (2013) Water quality in India: Issues and challenges. In: Gill SS (ed) Water for health: healthy water, healthy life. Gulab Publisher, New Delhi & Basera Verlag, Germany, pp 256-261Google Scholar
  71. Ravindra K, Kaur K, Mor S (2015) System analysis of municipal solid waste management in Chandigarh and minimization practices for cleaner emissions. J Clean Prod 89:251–256Google Scholar
  72. Ravindra K, Mor S (2018) Rapid monitoring and evaluation of a community-led total sanitation program using smartphones. ESPR 25(32):31929–31934Google Scholar
  73. Ravindra K, Mor S (2019) Distribution and health risk assessment of arsenic and selected heavy metals in Groundwater of Chandigarh, India. Environ Pollut [In press].  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.080
  74. Reshma PS, Mamatha M (2016) A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and practices regarding water, sanitation and hygiene among women in selected villages of Udupi district. NUJHS  6:21–27Google Scholar
  75. Ritchie H, Roser M (2017) Water Access, Resources & Sanitation- our world in data. https://ourworldindata.org/water-use-sanitation
  76. Sharma A (2015) Physio-chemical analysis of tap water of Chandigarh (UT), India. Int J Curr Sci 14:51–54Google Scholar
  77. Singh S, Singh N, Kumar S (2014) Quality of water in and around Chandigarh Region. J Chem En Sci A 1(1):33–43Google Scholar
  78. Subbaraman R, Shitole S, Shitole T, O’Brien SK, Bloom ED, Patil DA (2013) The social ecology of water in a Mumbai slum: failures in water quality, quantity and reliability. BMC Public Health 13(73):1–14Google Scholar
  79. Swain P, Pathela S (2016) Status of sanitation and hygiene practices in the context of “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” in two districts of India. Int J Community Med Public Health 3(11):3140–3146Google Scholar
  80. UNICEF (2009) Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in schools: a companion to the child friendly school manual. Accessed from https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/CFS_WASH_E_web.pdf
  81. Vásquez WF, Mozumder P, Franceschi D (2015) Water quality, household perceptions and averting behavior: evidence from Nicaragua. Water Econs Policy 1(4):1550011Google Scholar
  82. Verma R, Singh A, Khurana A, Dixit P, Singh R (2017) Practices and attitudinal behavior about drinking water in an urban slum of district Rohtak, Haryana: a community-based study. J Family Med Prim Care 6(3):554–557Google Scholar
  83. Water Aid (2018) The water gap – the state of the world’s water. Water Aid. Accessed from http://wateraidindia.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/The-Water-Gap-State-of-Water-report-PAGES.pdf
  84. WHO (2017) Progress on sanitation and drinking water: 2017 Update and MDG assessment. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  85. World Health Organization (2013) World health statistics 2013: a wealth of information on global public health. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  86. World Health Organization (2015) Progress on sanitation and drinking water: 2015 update and MDG assessment. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  87. Yang CZ, Yaniger SI, Jordan VC, Klein DJ, Bittner GD (2011) Most plastic products release estrogenic chemicals: a potential health problem that can be solved. Environ Health Perspect 119(7):982–996Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khaiwal Ravindra
    • 1
    Email author
  • Suman Mor
    • 2
  • Venkatamaha Lakshmi Pinnaka
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Public HealthPost Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)ChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environment StudiesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations