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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18084–18097 | Cite as

Eichhornia crassipes biodiesel as a renewable green fuel for diesel engine applications: performance, combustion, and emission characteristics

  • Harish VenuEmail author
  • Dhinakaran Venkataraman
  • Prince Purushothaman
  • Dhana Raju Vallapudi
Research Article

Abstract

This work examines the feasibility of fuelling biodiesel derived from Eichhornia crassipes in a compression ignition engine. This work also proposes water hyacinth biodiesel (WHB) as a potential alternative energy source since the above species is available extensively in freshwater, marine, and aquatic ecosystems throughout the world. WHB was blended with petroleum diesel fuel at various volume proportions of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 100% and their properties were analyzed as per ASTM standards for its application as biofuel. The prepared test fuels were analyzed experimentally in a single-cylinder diesel engine at constant speed (1500 rev/min) for its performance, combustion, and emission characteristics. Test results projected that the characteristics of 20% WHB + 80% diesel fuel blend were in par with neat diesel fuel in terms of thermal efficiency, HC, CO, and smoke emissions. However, WHB blends resulted in slightly higher levels of CO2 and NOx emissions. At full load, the attained cylinder pressure and heat release rate of WHB were comparatively lower than diesel fuel. Ignition delay is lowest for B100 blend and therefore the diffusion burning phase of biodiesel phase is found to be dominant in comparison with diesel fuel. For biodiesel blends, the combustion starts earlier due to higher cetane number, lessened delay period, and lowered calorific value followed by lowered HRR.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Water hyacinth Biodiesel Performance Combustion Emission 

Abbreviations

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

BSEC

Brake-specific fuel consumption

BTE

Brake thermal efficiency

WHB

Water hyacinth biodiesel

CHRR

Cumulative heat release rate

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

EGT

Exhaust gas temperature

H2O

Water

HRR

Heat release rate

ID

Ignition delay

MR

Methanol to oil ratio

NOx

Oxides of nitrogen

O2

Oxygen

HC

Hydrocarbon

Symbols and nomenclatures

P

Instantaneous heat release rate, N/m2

V

Instantaneous cylinder volume, m3

ΔX

Uncertainty of measured variables

Xi

Number of readings

\( \overline{X_i} \)

Experimental readings

θ

Crank angle, degree

γ

Ratio of specific heats (Cp/Cv), kJ/kgK

\( \overset{\bullet }{Q_{lw}} \)

Blow by losses, J/°CA

\( \frac{d Qlw}{d\theta} \)

Heat transfer to combustion chamber walls, J/°CA

\( \frac{d{Q}_n}{d\theta} \)

Net heat release rate, J/°CA

\( \frac{d{Q}_g}{d\theta} \)

Gross heat release rate, J/°CA

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Centre for biotechnology, Anna University for its assistance in aquatic growth, culture, and oil extraction. The author also thanks the Chemical engineering department, Anna University for fuel property characterization.

Funding

The author also discloses that there are no external grants received for this research work.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harish Venu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dhinakaran Venkataraman
    • 2
  • Prince Purushothaman
    • 3
  • Dhana Raju Vallapudi
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSaveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, (SIMATS)ChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical ChemistryManipal College of Pharmaceutical SciencesManipalIndia
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical and Mechanical SciencesSaraswathi Narayanan CollegeMaduraiIndia
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringLakireddy Bali Reddy College of EngineeringMylavaramIndia

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