Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18084–18097 | Cite as

Eichhornia crassipes biodiesel as a renewable green fuel for diesel engine applications: performance, combustion, and emission characteristics

  • Harish VenuEmail author
  • Dhinakaran Venkataraman
  • Prince Purushothaman
  • Dhana Raju Vallapudi
Research Article


This work examines the feasibility of fuelling biodiesel derived from Eichhornia crassipes in a compression ignition engine. This work also proposes water hyacinth biodiesel (WHB) as a potential alternative energy source since the above species is available extensively in freshwater, marine, and aquatic ecosystems throughout the world. WHB was blended with petroleum diesel fuel at various volume proportions of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 100% and their properties were analyzed as per ASTM standards for its application as biofuel. The prepared test fuels were analyzed experimentally in a single-cylinder diesel engine at constant speed (1500 rev/min) for its performance, combustion, and emission characteristics. Test results projected that the characteristics of 20% WHB + 80% diesel fuel blend were in par with neat diesel fuel in terms of thermal efficiency, HC, CO, and smoke emissions. However, WHB blends resulted in slightly higher levels of CO2 and NOx emissions. At full load, the attained cylinder pressure and heat release rate of WHB were comparatively lower than diesel fuel. Ignition delay is lowest for B100 blend and therefore the diffusion burning phase of biodiesel phase is found to be dominant in comparison with diesel fuel. For biodiesel blends, the combustion starts earlier due to higher cetane number, lessened delay period, and lowered calorific value followed by lowered HRR.

Graphical abstract


Water hyacinth Biodiesel Performance Combustion Emission 



American Society for Testing and Materials


Brake-specific fuel consumption


Brake thermal efficiency


Water hyacinth biodiesel


Cumulative heat release rate


Carbon monoxide


Carbon dioxide


Exhaust gas temperature




Heat release rate


Ignition delay


Methanol to oil ratio


Oxides of nitrogen





Symbols and nomenclatures


Instantaneous heat release rate, N/m2


Instantaneous cylinder volume, m3


Uncertainty of measured variables


Number of readings

\( \overline{X_i} \)

Experimental readings


Crank angle, degree


Ratio of specific heats (Cp/Cv), kJ/kgK

\( \overset{\bullet }{Q_{lw}} \)

Blow by losses, J/°CA

\( \frac{d Qlw}{d\theta} \)

Heat transfer to combustion chamber walls, J/°CA

\( \frac{d{Q}_n}{d\theta} \)

Net heat release rate, J/°CA

\( \frac{d{Q}_g}{d\theta} \)

Gross heat release rate, J/°CA



The authors thank Centre for biotechnology, Anna University for its assistance in aquatic growth, culture, and oil extraction. The author also thanks the Chemical engineering department, Anna University for fuel property characterization.


The author also discloses that there are no external grants received for this research work.


  1. Abraham M, Kurup GM (1996) Bioconversion of tapioca (Manihotesculenta) waste and water hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes)—influence of various physico-chemical factors. J Ferment Bioeng 82(3):259–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aswathy US, Sukumaran RK, Devi GL, Rajasree KP, Singhania RR, Pandey A (2010) Bio-ethanol from water hyacinth biomass: an evaluation of enzymatic saccharification strategy. Bioresour Technol 101(3):925–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atabani AE, Mahlia TMI, Badruddin IA, Masjuki HH, Chong WT, Lee KT (2013) Investigation of physical and chemical properties of potential edible and non-edible feedstocks for biodiesel production, a comparative analysis. Renew Sust Energ Rev 21:749–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atadashi IM, Aroua MK, Aziz AA (2010) High quality biodiesel and its diesel engine application: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14(7):1999–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balaji G, Cheralathan M (2015) Experimental investigation of antioxidant effect on oxidation stability and emissions in a methyl ester of neem oil fueled DI diesel engine. Renew Energy 74:910–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balasubramanian D, Arumugam SRS, Subramani L, Chellakumar IJLJS, Mani A (2018) A numerical study on the effect of various combustion bowl parameters on the performance, combustion, and emission behavior on a single cylinder diesel engine. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(3):2273–2284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhuiya MMK, Rasul MG, Khan MMK, Ashwath N, Azad AK, Hazrat MA (2014) Second generation biodiesel: potential alternative to-edible oil-derived biodiesel. Energy Procedia 61:1969–1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Choudhary AK, Chelladurai H, Kannan C (2015) Optimization of combustion performance of bio ethanol (water hyacinth) diesel blends on diesel engine using response surface methodology. Arab J Sci Eng 40:3675–3695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Curtis CR, Duke JA (1982) An assessment of land biomass and energy potential for the Republic of Panama. Institute of Energy Conversion. Univ, Delaware, p 3Google Scholar
  10. Demirbas A (2009) Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels. Energy Convers Manag 50(1):14–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dhana Raju V, Kumar KK, Kishore PS (2016) Engine performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with 1-hexanol as a fuel additive in Mahua seed oil biodiesel blends. Int J Therm Environ Eng 13(2):121–127Google Scholar
  12. Heywood J (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 284–286Google Scholar
  13. Huang G, Chen F, Wei D, Zhang X, Chen G (2010) Biodiesel production by microalgal biotechnology. Appl Energy 87(1):38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Issariyakul T, Dalai AK, Desai P (2011) Evaluating esters derived from mustard oil (Sinapisalba) as potential diesel additives. J Am Oil Chem Soc 88(3):391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kahlon SS, Kumar P (1987) Simulation of fermentation conditions for ethanol production from water-hyacinth. Indian J Ecol 14(2):213–217Google Scholar
  16. Kim MY, Lee CS (2007) Effect of a narrow fuel spray angle and a dual injection configuration on the improvement of exhaust emissions in a HCCI diesel engine. Fuel 86(17–18):2871–2880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koç M, Sekmen Y, Topgül T, Yücesu HS (2009) The effects of ethanol–unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a spark-ignition engine. Renew Energy 34(10):2101–2106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Konwar LJ, Boro J, Deka D (2014) Review on latest developments in biodiesel production using carbon-based catalysts. Renew Sust Energ Rev 29:546–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumar MS, Ramesh A, Nagalingam B (2003) An experimental comparison of methods to use methanol and Jatropha oil in a compression ignition engine. Biomass Bioenergy 25(3):309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mazumdar B, Agarwal AK (2008) Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of biodiesel (waste cooking oil methyl ester) fueled IDI diesel engine (No. 2008-01-1384). SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  21. Mishima D, Kuniki M, Sei K, Soda S,. Ike M, M. Fujita (2008) Ethanol production from candidate energy crops: water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.). Bioresource technology 99(7):2495–2500Google Scholar
  22. Mitchell DS (1976) The growth and management of Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia spp. in their native environment and in alien situations. In: Varshnay CK, Rz6ska J (eds) Aquatic weeds in South East Asia. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, pp 167–176Google Scholar
  23. Murugan S, Ramaswamy MC, Nagarajan G (2008) Performance, emission and combustion studies of a DI diesel engine using distilled Tyre pyrolysis oil-diesel blends. Fuel Process Technol 89(2):152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. National Academy of Sciences (1976) Making aquatic weeds useful: some perspectives for developing countries. Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the advisory Committee on Technology Innovation Board on Science and Technology for International Development. Commission on International Relations, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  25. Nigam JN (2002) Bioconversion of water-hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate to motor fuel ethanol by xylose–fermenting yeast. J Biotechnol 97(2):107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nwafor OMI (2004) Emission characteristics of diesel engine operating on rapeseed methyl ester. Renew Energy 29(1):119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Park C, Choi Y, Kim C, Oh S, Lim G, Moriyoshi Y (2010) Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a spark ignition engine using ethanol and ethanol-reformed gas. Fuel 89(8):2118–2125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Raheman H, Phadatare AG (2004) Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel. Biomass Bioenergy 27(4):393–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Raju VD, Kumar MH, Kishore PS, Venu H (2018) Combined impact of EGR and injection pressure in performance improvement and NOx control of a DI diesel engine powered with tamarind seed biodiesel blend. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:36381–36393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rakopoulos DC (2012) Heat release analysis of combustion in heavy-duty turbocharged diesel engine operating on blends of diesel fuel with cottonseed or sunflower oils and their bio-diesel. Fuel 96:524–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ramadhas AS, Muraleedharan C, Jayaraj S (2005) Performance and emission evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl esters of rubber seed oil. Renew Energy 30(12):1789–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Saladini F, Patrizi N, Pulselli FM, Marchettini N, Bastianoni S (2016) Guidelines for emergy evaluation of first, second and third generation biofuels. Renew Sust Energ Rev 66:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sanaa MMS, Eman AH, Emad AS (2018) Water hyacinth as non-edible source for biofuel production. Waste Biomass Valor 9:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Serrano LM, Câmara RM, Carreira VJ, Da Silva MG (2012) Performance study about biodiesel impact on buses engines using dynamometer tests and fleet consumption data. Energy Convers Manag 60:2–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Srinophakun P, Thanapimmetha A, Rattanaphanyapan K, Sahaya T, Saisriyoot M (2017) Feedstock production for third generation biofuels through cultivation of Arthrobacter AK19 under stress conditions. J Clean Prod 142:1259–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tan PQ, Hu ZY, Lou DM, Li ZJ (2012) Exhaust emissions from a light-duty diesel engine with Jatropha biodiesel fuel. Energy 39(1):356–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Umdu ES, Tuncer M, Seker E (2009) Transesterification of nannochloropsisoculata microalga’s lipid to biodiesel on Al2O3 supported CaO and MgO catalysts. Bioresour Technol 100(11):2828–2831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Utlu Z, Koçak MS (2008) The effect of biodiesel fuel obtained from waste frying oil on direct injection diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions. Renew Energy 33(8):1936–1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Uyumaz A (2015) An experimental investigation into combustion and performance characteristics of an HCCI gasoline engine fueled with n-heptane, isopropanol and n-butanol fuel blends at different inlet air temperatures. Energy Convers Manag 98:199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Venu H, Madhavan V (2017) Effect of diethyl ether and Al2 O3 nano additives in diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends: performance, combustion and emission characteristics. J Mech Sci Technol 31(1):409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wagner LE, Clark SJ, Schrock MD (1984) Effects of soybean oil esters on the performance, lubricating oil, and water of diesel engines (No. 841385). SAE Technical Paper, pp 57–72Google Scholar
  42. Xue J, Grift TE, Hansen AC (2011) Effect of biodiesel on engine performances and emissions. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15(2):1098–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yusuf NNAN, Kamarudin SK, Yaakub Z (2011) Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production. Energy Convers Manag 52(7):2741–2751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhao H (2007) HCCI and CAI engines for the automotive industry, 1st edn. Woodhead, Cambridge, pp 68–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhong W, Xuan T, He Z, Wang Q, Li D, Zhang X, Huang YY (2016) Experimental study of combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine with diesel/second-generation biodiesel blending fuels. Energy Convers Manag 121:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harish Venu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dhinakaran Venkataraman
    • 2
  • Prince Purushothaman
    • 3
  • Dhana Raju Vallapudi
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSaveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, (SIMATS)ChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical ChemistryManipal College of Pharmaceutical SciencesManipalIndia
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical and Mechanical SciencesSaraswathi Narayanan CollegeMaduraiIndia
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringLakireddy Bali Reddy College of EngineeringMylavaramIndia

Personalised recommendations