Radiolytic oxidation and degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol in aqueous solutions

  • Guadalupe AlbarránEmail author
  • Edith Mendoza
Research Article


Radiolytic oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DClP) in aqueous solutions demonstrated that ·OH predominantly adds to the unsubstituted positions of the aromatic ring and that elimination of chloride at the 4 position is important because the –OH group enhances the electron density at this position, which is favorable for the electrophilic reactions. The total yield obtained was 0.540 μmol/J. Radiation-induced degradation of 2,4-DClP was conducted in oxygen-free aqueous solutions (0.1, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.7 mmol/dm3), saturated with N2O, and aerated and under irradiation at low and high doses. The results demonstrate that the largest degradation occurred in oxygen-free solutions due to oxidation (·OH) and reduction reactions (H· and \( {\mathrm{e}}_{\mathrm{aq}}^{-} \)) and attack of the \( {\mathrm{e}}_{\mathrm{aq}}^{-} \) at the ipso position of –Cl, producing HCl. The degradation was affected to a large extent by the concentration and to a lesser extent by the presence or absence of oxygen in which the 2,4-DClP solution was irradiated. At concentrations less than 1 mmol/dm3, 2,4-DClP was degraded in the solution at an absorbed dose level of 1 kGy. At higher doses, the product concentrations increased to up to 30% of the dose required for the total degradation of 2,4-DClP; then, they decreased. A graph plotting the logarithm of the relative concentration as a function of the dose shows a linear correlation, which indicates that the radiolytic degradation followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The oxidation was followed by the chemical oxygen demand (COD). COD decreases when the solute concentration increases. This fact has a dependence on the presence or absence of oxygen too.


2,4-Dichlorophenol Radiolytical yield Radiolytic oxidation Radiation-induce degradation Chemical oxygen demand Hydroxyl radical 



The authors would like to thank MSc. Tania Rojo Portillo for her collaboration in this work during her stay in our laboratory and Fis. Fco. García from ICN-UNAM for irradiating the sample.

Funding information

The work described here was financially supported by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (grant PAPIIT-IN200419).


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Ciencias NuclearesUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoCd de MéxicoMéxico

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