Pollution caused by heavy metals affects all forms of life. The aim of the study was to determine the content of toxic (Sr, Ni, Pb, V, Cd, U, Rb, As) and essential (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Se, Mn, Cr, Mo, Co) metals in the bone and whole blood samples, in regard to clinical means of long- and short-term exposure, respectively. For this purpose, the cortical and trabecular parts of femoral neck, as well as the blood samples, were collected to quantify bone-important metals by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based techniques. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the most influential metal discriminating blood samples was Cu, while all other quantified elements were present in higher amounts in the bones. Additionally, trabecular bones (TBs) could be characterized by higher content of Mo, Cr, V, Mn, Co, As, and Ni compared to cortical bones (CBs). Linear discrimination analysis (LDA) was successfully applied to distinguish trabecular bone from the cortical bone. Significant correlation between essential Ca and toxic Sr with other elements was found and discussed. This study provides novel data on the effects of metal pollutants on bone health hazards. The results obtained for investigating metals may serve as a baseline for further clinical investigations in the orthopedic fields.
Toxic/essential elements Femoral neck Whole blood ICP PCA/LDA Serbian inhabitants
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This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, project No. 172030.
Compliance with ethical standards
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Serbia. All subjects voluntarily participated in the study and the consent was obtained from each subject.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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