Production of eco-friendly fuel with the help of steam distillation from new plant source and the investigation of its influence of fuel injection strategy in diesel engine

  • Krishnamoorthy RamalingamEmail author
  • Annamalai Kandasamy
  • Paul James Thadhani Joshua Stephen Chellakumar
Research Article


The primary intention of this experiment is to abate the harmful emissions of imported petroleum fuel by approach of novel citronella emulsified fuel. The study is emphasized by evaluating the influence of alteration in IT (injection timing) and IP (injection pressure) in diesel engine when utilizing B20 emulsion fuel of 5% water, 1% surfactant, 14% citronella oil and 80% diesel. The IT and IP are speckled in the array of 21 degCA bTDC, 23 degCA bTDC and 25 degCA bTDC and 180, 200, 220 and 240 bar correspondingly. It is found that retarding the IT and increasing the IP along with emulsified fuel lead to increase in the brake thermal efficiency by 1.16% and minimal in the brake-specific fuel consumption by 4.86% at top load state when correlated with diesel. Exhaust emissions carbon monoxide, NOx and smoke were considerably reduced by 35%, 0.8% and 34% respectively, but slight increase in HC was observed by 5.26%; heat release rate and cylinder pressure had a considerable improvement. From the determination of these values, the optimum values of IT and IP are inferred as 21° bTDC and 200 bar.

Graphical abstract


Citronella oil Biofuel Emulsion fuels Diesel engine Emission control Combustion 



compression ignition


injection timing


injection pressure


oxides of nitrogen


carbon monoxide




brake-specific fuel consumption


brake thermal efficiency


ignition delay


combustion duration


brake power


particulate matters


heat release rate


cylinder pressure




Hart ridge smoke units




crank angle


top dead centre


cetane number


parts per million


Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester


latent heat of vaporisation


gas chromatography-mass spectrometry


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy




revaluation per minute


exhaust gas recirculation



One of the authors, Mr.R. Krishnamoorthy, state their hearty full thanks to Anna Centenary Research Fellowship for awarding fellowship and also the researchers are passing on grateful extended thanks to all the members of Automobile Engineering Department, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chromepet, Chennai 44.

Funding information

ACRF facilitated financial support to acquire the present research work.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krishnamoorthy Ramalingam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Annamalai Kandasamy
    • 1
  • Paul James Thadhani Joshua Stephen Chellakumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Automobile Engineering, Madras Institute of Technology (MIT) CampusAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

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