Dynamics of associations between perfluoroalkyl substances and uric acid across the various stages of glomerular function
- 182 Downloads
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2014 data (N = 6844) for adults aged ≥ 20 years were analyzed to estimate associations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), namely, PFOA, PFOS, PFDA, PFHxS, and PFNA with uric acid across stages of declining glomerular function. The population was stratified by the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) stages accompanying kidney disease: GF-1 with eGFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2; GF-2 with eGFR 60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2; GF-3A with eGFR 45–59 mL/min/1.73 m2; and GF-3B/4 with eGFR 15–44 mL/min/1.73 m2. Adjusted and unadjusted geometric means of uric acid increased from GF-1 to GF-3B/4 for males and females. Adjusted geometric means for uric acid were higher for males by 1.38, 1.03, and 0.62 mg/dL for GF-1, GF2, and GF-3 respectively but for GF-3B/4, females had higher adjusted geometric means than males by 0.16 mg/dL, revealing narrowing of sex differences in uric acid as glomerular function declines. The direction of association between PFAS and uric acid was positive for GF-1 and GF-2 for males and for every PFAS except PFDA for females. For males for GF-3B/4, association between every PFAS except PFHxS and uric acid was found to be negative (p < 0.01). For females, only PFHxS actually reverses its relationship with increasing stages of renal disease. Uric acid associations with PFAS reverse in males with advanced renal failure. An implication is that previously reported association of PFAS exposure with uric acid is not due to renal failure. Understanding of other biomarkers associated with both PFAS exposure and renal failure may benefit from similar evaluation.
KeywordsPerfluoroalkyl substances Uric acid Kidney failure PFOA
Compliance with ethical standards
Ram B Jain declares that he had no financial and/or other conflicts that could have affected the conclusions arrived at in this communication. Alan Ducatman has provided testimony for medical monitoring of populations with PFAS contaminated water. No human subjects were involved in this research and all data used in this research are available and free of cost at www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm.
- Fiorentino TV, Sesti F, Succurro E, Pedace E, Andreozzi F, Sciacqua A, Hribal ML, Perticone F, Sesti G (2018) Higher serum levels of uric acid are associated with a reduced insulin clearance in non-diabetic individuals. Acta Diabetol 55:835–842. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-018-1153-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fromme H, Mosch C, Morovitz M, Alba-Alejandre I, Boehmer S, Kiranoglu M, Faber F, Hannibal I, Genzel-Boroviczény O, Koletzko B, Völkel W (2010) Pre- and postnatal exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Environ Sci Technol 44(18):7123–7129. https://doi.org/10.1021/es101184f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gleason JA, Post GB, Fagliano JA (2015) Associations of perfluorinated chemical serum concentrations and biomarkers of liver function and uric acid in the US population (NHANES), 2007-2010. Environ Int 136:8–14Google Scholar
- Johnson RJ, Bakris GL, Borghi C, Chonchol MB, Feldman D, Lanaspa MA, Merriman TR, Moe OW, Mount DB, Sanchez Lozada LG, Stahl E, Weiner DE, Chertow GM (2018) Hyperuricemia, acute and chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: report of a scientific workshop organized by the National Kidney Foundation. Am J Kidney Dis 71(6):851–865. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jusko TA, Oktapodas M, Palkovičová Murinová L, Babinská K, Babjaková J, Verner MA, JC DW, Thevenet-Morrison K, Čonka K, Drobná B, Chovancová J, Thurston SW, Lawrence BP, Dozier AM, Järvinen KM, Patayová H, Trnovec T, Legler J, Hertz-Picciotto I, Lamoree MH (2016) Demographic, reproductive, and dietary determinants of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in human colostrum. Environ Sci Technol 50(13):7152–7162. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b00195 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kansui Y, Matsumura K, Morinaga Y, Inoue M, Kiyohara K, Ohta Y, Goto K, Ohtsubo T, Ooboshi H, Kitazono T (2018) Impact of serum uric acid on incident hypertension in a worksite population of Japanese men. J Hypertens May 8. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001743.
- Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, Stevens LA, Zhang YL, Hendriksen S, Kusek JW, Van Lente F (2006) Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 145(4):247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu G, Zhang S, Yang K, Zhu L, Lin D (2016) Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to Escherichia coli: membrane disruption, oxidative stress, and DNA damage induced cell inactivation and/or death. Environ Pollut 214:806–815. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.04.089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Qin X-D, Qian Z, Vaughn MG, Huang J, Ward P, Zeng X-W, Zhou Y, Zhu Y, Yuan P, Li M, Bai Z, Paul G, Hao Y-T, Chen W, Chen P-C, Dong G-H, Lee YL (2016) Positive associations of serum perfluoroalkyl substances with uric acid and hyperuricemia in children from Taiwan. Environ Pollut 212:519–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar