Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 18886–18892 | Cite as

Protective effects of Allium hirtifolium Boiss extract on cadmium-induced renal failure in rats

  • Dara Dastan
  • Sedigheh Karimi
  • Amir Larki-Harchegani
  • Amir Nili-AhmadabadiEmail author
Short Research and Discussion Article


Cadmium (Cd), as a toxic metal, can accumulate in kidneys and induce renal failure. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of Allium hirtifolium Boiss bulbs against Cd-induced renal failure in rats. Thirty-six rats were divided into 6 groups: group 1, 2, and 3 received vehicle, Cd (100 mg/L/day by drinking water), and AhB extract (200 mg/kg/day; orally), respectively. Groups 4, 5, and 6 were Cd groups which treated AhB extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively). After 2 weeks, renal function and oxidative stress markers were determined by using colorimetric methods. Our findings showed that Cd caused a significant increase in creatinine (Cr; p<0.05), uric acid (p<0.01), BUN (p<0.05), serum levels, lipid peroxidation (LPO; p<0.01), and nitric oxide (NO; p<0.01); the depletion of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC; p<0.01) and total thiol molecules (TTM; p<0.001); and structural alterations in the renal tissue. Following AhB extract administration, a remarkable improvement was observed in the functional and oxidative stress markers of renal tissue.

This study suggests that AhB may prevent progression of Cd-induced renal failure via improvement of oxidative/antioxidant balance in renal tissue.


Cadmium Renal failure Allium hirtifolium Boiss Oxidative stress 



Financial support for this work was provided by vice-chancellor for research and technology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran (Grant No. 9412257444).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Adaramoye OA, Akanni OO (2016) Modulatory effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) on cadmium-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in male Wistar rats. Pathophysiology 23(1):1–9Google Scholar
  2. Adeline J, Josiane A, Isabelle HF, Florence HP, Karine C, Marine L, Frédéric L, Fayçal O, Eric F, Jean-Marc M (2018) Impact of chronic and low cadmium exposure of rats: sex specific disruption of glucose metabolism. Chemosphere 207:764–773Google Scholar
  3. Aghababaei R, Javadi I, Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Parsafar S, Ahmadimoghaddam D (2018) Occurrence of bacterial and toxic metals contamination in illegal opioid-like drugs in Iran: a significant health challenge in drug abusers. Daru 26(1):77–83Google Scholar
  4. Amidi N, Moradkhani S, Sedaghat M, Khiripour N, Larki-Harchegani A, Zadkhosh N, Mirhoseini M, Ranjbar A (2015) Effect of green tea on inflammation and oxidative stress in cisplatin-induced experimental liver function. J HerbMed Pharmacol 5(3):99–102Google Scholar
  5. Asgarpanah J, Ghanizadeh B (2012) Pharmacologic and medicinal properties of Allium hirtifolium Boiss. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 6(25):1809–1814Google Scholar
  6. Azadi HG, Ghaffari SM, Riazi GH, Ahmadian S, Vahedi F (2008) Antiproliferative activity of chloroformic extract of Persian shallot, Allium hirtifolium, on tumor cell lines. Cytotechnology 56(3):179–185Google Scholar
  7. Chen Q, Zhang R, Li WM, Niu YJ, Guo HC, Liu XH, Hou YC, Zhao LJ (2013) The protective effect of grape seed procyanidin extract against cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in mice. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 36(3):759–768Google Scholar
  8. Chen S, Liu G, Long M, Zou H, Cui H (2018) Alpha lipoic acid attenuates cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in rat. J Inorg Biochem 184:19–26Google Scholar
  9. Chunhabundit R (2016) Cadmium exposure and potential health risk from foods in contaminated area, Thailand. Toxicol Res 32(1):65–72Google Scholar
  10. Claudio SR, Gollucke APB, Yamamura H, Morais DR, Bataglion GA, Eberlin MN, Peres RC, Oshima CTF, Ribeiro DA (2016) Purple carrot extract protects against cadmium intoxication in multiple organs of rats: genotoxicity, oxidative stress and tissue morphology analyses. J Trace Elem Med Biol 33:37–47Google Scholar
  11. Dkhil MA, Al-Quraishy S, Diab MM, Othman MS, Aref AM, Moneim AEA (2014) The potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. fruit in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Food Chem Toxicol 74:98–106Google Scholar
  12. Elkhadragy MF, Al-Olayan EM, Al-Amiery AA, Moneim AEA (2018) Protective effects of Fragaria ananassa extract against cadmium chloride-induced acute renal toxicity in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 181(2):378–387Google Scholar
  13. Famurewa AC, Ejezie AJ, Ugwu-Ejezie CS, Ikekpeazu EJ, Ejezie FE (2018) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of polyphenols isolated from virgin coconut oil attenuate cadmium-induced oxidative stress-mediated nephrotoxicity and inflammation in rats. J Appl Biomed 16:281–288. Google Scholar
  14. Ghahremani-Majd H, Dashti F, Dastan D, Mumivand H, Hadian J, Esna-Ashari M (2012) Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Iranian mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss) populations. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 53(2):116–122Google Scholar
  15. Hagar H, Al Malki W (2014) Betaine supplementation protects against renal injury induced by cadmium intoxication in rats: role of oxidative stress and caspase-3. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 37(2):803–811Google Scholar
  16. Hajian N, Rezayatmand Z, Shahanipur K (2018) Preventive effects of Allium hirtifolium Boiss methanolic and aqueous extracts on renal injury induced by lead in rats. J Herbmed Pharmacol 7(3):155–159Google Scholar
  17. Harchegani AL, Hemmati AA, Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Darabi B, Shabib S (2017) Cromolyn sodium attenuates paraquat-induced lung injury by modulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Drug Res 67(05):283–288Google Scholar
  18. Hassani S, Maqbool F, Salek-Maghsoudi A, Rahmani S, Shadboorestan A, Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Amini M, Norouzi P, Abdollahi M (2018) Alteration of hepatocellular antioxidant gene expression pattern and biomarkers of oxidative damage in diazinon-induced acute toxicity in Wistar rat: a time-course mechanistic study. EXCLI J 17:57–71Google Scholar
  19. Jafarian A, Ghannadi A, Elyasi A (2010) The effects of Allium hirtifolium Boiss. On cell-mediated immune response in mice. Iranian. J Pharm Res 2:51–55Google Scholar
  20. Kim KS, Lim HJ, Lim JS, Son JY, Lee J, Lee BM, Chang SC, Kim HS (2018) Curcumin ameliorates cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxicol 114:34–40Google Scholar
  21. Korkmaz A, Kolankaya D (2013) Inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase with rutin reduces renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Can J Surg 56(1):6–14Google Scholar
  22. Lai JH, Luo SF, Hung LF, Huang CY, Lien SB, Lin LC, Liu FC, Yen BL, Ho LJ (2017) Physiological concentrations of soluble uric acid are chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory. Sci Rep 7:2359. Google Scholar
  23. Leelarungrayub N, Rattanapanone V, Chanarat N, Gebicki JM (2006) Quantitative evaluation of the antioxidant properties of garlic and shallot preparations. Nutrition 22(3):266–274Google Scholar
  24. Liu J, Qu W, Kadiiska MB (2009) Role of oxidative stress in cadmium toxicity and carcinogenesis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238(3):209–214Google Scholar
  25. Miltonprabu S, Sumedha N, Senthilraja P (2017) Diallyl trisulfide, a garlic polysulfide protects against as-induced renal oxidative nephrotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammation in rats by activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. Int Immunopharmacol 50:107–120Google Scholar
  26. Mohammadi-Motlagh HR, Mostafaie A, Mansouri K (2011) Anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of shallot. Arch Med Sci 7(1):38–44Google Scholar
  27. Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Sedaghat M, Ranjbar A, Poorolajal J, Nasiripour H, Nili-Ahmadabadi M (2016) Quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of methanol in medicinal herbal drinks marketed in Hamadan, Iran. J App Pharm Sci 6(7):049–052Google Scholar
  28. Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Ali-Heidar F, Ranjbar A, Mousavi L, Ahmadimoghaddam D, Larki-Harchegani A, Ghafouri-Khosrowshahi A (2018) Protective effect of amlodipine on diazinon-induced changes on oxidative/antioxidant balance in rat hippocampus. Res Pharm Sci 13(4):368–376Google Scholar
  29. Pandya D, Nagrajappa AK, Ravi KS (2016) Assessment and correlation of urea and creatinine levels in saliva and serum of patients with chronic kidney disease, diabetes and hypertension—a research study. J Clin Diagn Res 10(10):ZC58–ZC62Google Scholar
  30. Prozialeck WC, Edwards JR (2012) Mechanisms of cadmium-induced proximal tubule injury: new insights with implications for biomonitoring and therapeutic interventions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 343(1):2–12Google Scholar
  31. Rahimifard M, Navaei-Nigjeh M, Mahroui N, Mirzaei S, Siahpoosh Z, Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Mohammadirad A, Baeeri M, Hajiaghaie R, Abdollahi M (2014) Improvement in the function of isolated rat pancreatic islets through reduction of oxidative stress using traditional Iranian medicine. Cell J 16(2):147–163Google Scholar
  32. Satarug S, Vesey DA, Gobe GC (2017) Health risk assessment of dietary cadmium intake: do current guidelines indicate how much is safe? Environ Health Perspect 125(3):284–288Google Scholar
  33. Teo SH, Endre ZH (2017) Biomarkers in acute kidney injury (AKI). Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 31(3):331–344Google Scholar
  34. Wongmekiat O, Leelarugrayub N, Thamprasert K (2008) Beneficial effect of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) extract on cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 46(5):1844–1850Google Scholar
  35. Wunnapuk K, Liu X, Peake P, Gobe G, Endre Z, Grice JE, Roberts MS, Buckley NA (2013) Renal biomarkers predict nephrotoxicity after paraquat. Toxicol Lett 222(3):280–288Google Scholar
  36. Zeinvand-Lorestani H, Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Balak F, Hasanzadeh G, Sabzevari O (2018) Protective role of thymoquinone against paraquat-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Pestic Biochem Physiol 148:16–21Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dara Dastan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sedigheh Karimi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Amir Larki-Harchegani
    • 1
    • 3
  • Amir Nili-Ahmadabadi
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Medicinal Plants and Natural Products Research CenterHamadan University of Medical SciencesHamadanIran
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of PharmacyHamadan University of Medical SciencesHamadanIran
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of PharmacyHamadan University of Medical SciencesHamadanIran

Personalised recommendations