Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 11, pp 11371–11386 | Cite as

Generation of biodiesel from industrial wastewater using oleaginous yeast: performance and emission characteristics of microbial biodiesel and its blends on a compression injection diesel engine

  • Anbarasan TamilalaganEmail author
  • Jayanthi Singaram
  • Sakthivel Rajamohan
Research Article
  • 90 Downloads

Abstract

Microbial-derived biodiesel was tested on a lab scale CI diesel engine for carrying out exhaust emission and performance characteristics. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke fixed compression ratio engine when fueled with microbial bio-diesel and its 10–30% blends with diesel (on a volume basis) were investigated and compared with conventional diesel. The bio-diesel was obtained from microbes which were grown by combining distillery spent wash with lignocellulosic hydrolysate at nutrient deprived conditions. The microbes consumed the wastes and converted the high strength waste water into lipids, which were trans-esterified to form bio-diesel. Testing of microbial bio-diesel blends with ordinary diesel at different loading pressures and the emission characteristics were compared. Results indicate that with increasing of the blends, reduction of HC and CO emissions were observed, whilst brake thermal efficiency maxed out at 20% blending. Further increase of blends showed a tendency of increasing of both emissions in the exhaust stream. The Brake Specific Fuel consumption was observed to decline with blending until 20% and then increased. The nitrogen oxide emissions, however, were found to increase with increasing blend ratios and reached a maximum at 20% blend. The escalation of HC, CO, CO2, and NOx emissions was also observed at higher blending ratios and higher engine loads. The performance studies were able to show that out of the three blends of biodiesel, 20% biodiesel blend was able to deliver the best of reduced hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions, whilst also delivering the highest Brake thermal efficiency and the lowest Brake Specific Fuel consumption.

Keywords

Microbial biodiesel Biodiesel blends Emission reduction Thermal efficiency Specific fuel consumption 

Abbreviation

CDI

Compression direct ignition

HC

Hydrocarbons

BTE

Brake thermal efficiency

BSFC

Brake specific fuel consumption

BMEP

Brake mean effective pressure

FAME

Fatty acid methyl esters

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

DSW

Distillery spent wash

LCBH

Lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate

CDI

Compression direct injection

FTIR

Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy

TAG

Tri-acyl glycerol

MTCC

Microbial type culture and collection

CDF

Conventional diesel fuel

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

NOx

Nitrogen oxides

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Centre of excellence for environmental studies in Government College of Technology for funding this research. We also thank the Department of Mechanical Engineering, GCT, for running tests using CDI engine.

References

  1. Adaileh WM, Alqdah KS (2012) Performance of diesel engine fuelled by a biodiesel extracted from a waste cocking oil. Energy Procedia 18:1317–1334Google Scholar
  2. Agarwal AK (2005) Experimental investigation of the effect of biodiesel utilization on lubricating oil tribology in diesel engines. P I Mech Eng D-J Aut 219:703–713Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal AK, Atul D (2010) Comparative performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of rice-bran oil and its biodiesel in a transportation diesel engine. J Eng Gas Turb Power 132(6).  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4000143
  4. Agarwal AK, Bijwe J, Das LM (2003) Wear assessment in biodiesel fueled compression ignition engine. J Eng Gas Turb Power 125:820–826Google Scholar
  5. Ali OM, Mamat R, Faizal CKM (2013) Review of the effects of additives on biodiesel properties, performance, and emission features. J Renew Sustain Energy 5:012701Google Scholar
  6. Alvarez HM, Steinbuchel A (2002) Triacylglycerols in prokaryotic microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 60:367–376Google Scholar
  7. Ami D, Posteri R, Mereghetti P, Porro D, Doglia SM, Branduardi P (2014) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a method to study lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts. Biotechnol Biofuels 7:12Google Scholar
  8. Arbab MI, Masjuki HH, Varman M, Kalam MA, Imtenan S, Sajjad H (2013) Fuel properties, engine performance and emission characteristic of common biodiesels as a renewable and sustainable source of fuel. Renew Sust Energ Rev 22:133–147Google Scholar
  9. ASTM (2008) Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants and D.N. - A.G.T.a.M.F. Subcommittee D02.E0 on burner, standard specification for biodiesel fuel blend stock (B100) for middle distillate fuels. D6751–08. 10–13-2008. West Conshohocken, PA, USA, ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  10. Bellou S, Triantaphyllidou IE, Mizerakis P, Aggelis G (2016) High lipid accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated under double limitation of nitrogen and magnesium. J Biotechnol 234Google Scholar
  11. Bhaskar K, Sendilvelan S, Muthu V, Aravindraj S (2016) Performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine using methyl ester blends of jatropha and fish oil. J Mech Eng Sci (JMES) ISSN Print 10:2289–4659.  https://doi.org/10.15282/jmes.10.2.2016.4.0188 Google Scholar
  12. Boehman AL, Morris D, Szybist J, Esen E (2004) The impact of the bulk modulus of diesel fuels on fuel injection timing. Energy Fuel 18:1877–1882Google Scholar
  13. Brahma KK, Mahanta D, Kumar D (2017) Performance analysis of CI engine using biodiesel from Pongamia pinnata. Int J Mech Engg Tech (IJMET) 8(1):281–291Google Scholar
  14. Buyukkaya E (2010) Effects of biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics. Fuel 89:3099–3105Google Scholar
  15. Chuck CJ, Santomauro F, Scott RJ (2014) Method of increasing lipid accumulation in Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Cells 1–45Google Scholar
  16. Damanik N, Ong HC, Tong CW et al (2018) A review on the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel blends. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:15307.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2098-8 Google Scholar
  17. Danilo C, Souza, Andrade E, Santos D, Vidigal D et al (2006) Study of diesel-biodiesel fuel properties and wavelet analysis on cyclic variations in a diesel engine.. Ensaio de motores estacionários do ciclo diesel utilizando óleo diesel e biodiesel (B100). In: Proceedings of the 6. Encontro de Energia no Meio Rural. Campinas (SP, Brazil, p 2006Google Scholar
  18. Dean AP, Sigee DC, Estrada B, Pittman JK (2010) Using FTIR spectroscopy for rapid determination of lipid accumulation in response to nitrogen limitation in freshwater microalgae. Bioresour Technol 101:4499–4507Google Scholar
  19. Dorado MP, Ballesteros E, Arnal JM (2003) Go’mez J., Lo’pez F.J. Exhaust emissions from a Diesel engine fueled with trans-esterified waste olive oil. Fuel 82:1311–1315Google Scholar
  20. Demirbas A (2008) “Comparison of transesterification methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils and ats Energy Convers. Manag 49(1):125–130Google Scholar
  21. Du W, Li W, Sun T et al (2008) Perspectives for biotechnological production of biodiesel and impacts. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 79:331Google Scholar
  22. Farid A, Awasthi A k, Srivastava BP (2012) Physico-chemical Characterization of Distillery Effluent and its Dilution Effect at Different Levels. Arch of Appl Sci Res 4(4):1705–1715Google Scholar
  23. Fennimore CP (1971) Formation of nitric oxide in premixed hydrocarbon flames, Thirteenth Symposium on Combustion. Thirteenth Symp Combust :373–380Google Scholar
  24. Fernando S, Hall C, Jha S (2006) NOx reduction from biodiesel fuels. Energy Fuel 20:376–382Google Scholar
  25. Gaurav D, Sharma MP (2013) Performance evaluation of diesel engine using biodiesel from pongamia oil. Int J Ren energy res 2:3Google Scholar
  26. Gong Z, Shen H, Zhou W, Wang Y, Yang X, Zhao ZK (2015) Efficient conversion of acetate into lipids by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus. Biotechnol Biofuels 8:189.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068-015-0371-3 Google Scholar
  27. Gui MM, Lee KT, Bhatia S (2008) Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as biodiesel feedstock. Energy 33(11):1646–1653Google Scholar
  28. Gupta S, Manish V, Dhruv G, Naveen K (2013) Comparative study on performance and emission characteristics of fish oil biodiesel and mahua oil biodiesel blend with diesel in a compression ignition engine. SAE technical paper 01:2666Google Scholar
  29. Hao Y, Li X-H, Mu M-F, Kou G-Y et al (2017) J Appl Sci and Engg 20(2):201–210.  https://doi.org/10.6180/jase.2017.20.2.08 Google Scholar
  30. Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoekman SK, Broch A, Robbins C, Ceniceros E (2011) Investigation of biodiesel chemistry, carbon footprint and regional fuel quality. In: CRC Project AVFL-17aGoogle Scholar
  32. Huang C, Zong M-H, Wu H, Liu Q-P (2009) Microbial oil production from rice straw hydrolysate by Trichosporon fermentans. Bioresour Technol 100:4535–4538Google Scholar
  33. Imdadul HK, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Zulkifli NWM, Alabdul karem A, Rashed MM, Teoh YH, How HG (2016) Higher alcohol–biodiesel– diesel blends: an approach for improving the performance, emission, and combustion of a light-duty diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag 111:174–185Google Scholar
  34. Jiayin L, Nip S, de Toledo RA, Tian Y, Shim H (2016) Evaluation of specific lipid production and nutrients removal from wastewater by Rhodosporidium toruloides and biodiesel production from wet biomass via microwave irradiation. Energy 108(August):185–194Google Scholar
  35. Jin M, Slininger PJ, Dien BS, Waghmode S, Moser BR, Orjuela A, Sousa LdC, Balan V (2015) Microbial lipid-based lignocellulosic bio refinery: feasibility and challenges. Trends Biotechnol :43–54Google Scholar
  36. Jin GX, Yang Z, Gong H, Shen F, Bai Zhao Z K (2015) Recycling microbial lipid production wastes to cultivate oleaginous yeasts Bioresour. Technol 175Google Scholar
  37. Kegl B (2008) Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine. Biores Tech 99(4):863–873Google Scholar
  38. Kent SH, Curtis R (2012) Review of the effects of biodiesel on NOx emissions. Fuel Process Technol 96:237–249Google Scholar
  39. Ketterer JE, Wallace James S, Evans Greg J (2014) Emissions from compression ignition engines with animal-fat-derived biodiesel fuels. SAE technical paper 2014-01-1600Google Scholar
  40. Kitcha S, Cheirsilp B (2011) Screening of oleaginous yeasts and optimization for lipid production using crude glycerol as a carbon source. Energy Procedia 9:274–282Google Scholar
  41. Knothe G (2005) Dependence of biodiesel fuel properties on the structure of fatty acid alkyl esters. Fuel Process Technol 86:1059–1070Google Scholar
  42. Lee SK, Chou H, Ham TS, Lee TS, Keasling JD (2008) Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol 19(6):556–563, Google Scholar
  43. Liaquat AM, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Varman M, Hazrat MA (2012) Experimental analysis on engine performance and emission characteristics using biodiesel obtained from non-edible oil. Internl Rev Mechan Engg (IREME) 6(3) ISSN 1970–8734 March 2012 Special Section on “Regional Conference on Automotive Research (ReCAR2011)Google Scholar
  44. Mahmudula HM, Hagosa FY, Mamata R, Abdul Adam A, Ishak WFW, Alenezic R (2017) Production, characterization and performance of biodiesel as an alternative fuel in diesel engines—a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 72:497–509Google Scholar
  45. McCormick RL (2007) The impact of biodiesel on pollutant emissions and public health. Inhal Toxicol 19:1033–1039Google Scholar
  46. McCormick RL, Williams A, Ireland J, Brimhall M, Hayes RR (2006) Effects of biodiesel blends on vehicle emissions NREL/MP-540-40554. 10-1-2006Google Scholar
  47. Md. Saiful I, Ahmed AS, Islam A, Aziz SA, Xian LC, Mridha M (2014) Study on emission and performance of diesel engine using castor biodiesel. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. J Chem 2014:Article ID 451526, 8 pages.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/451526 Google Scholar
  48. Meeuwse P, Sanders JPM, Tramper J, Rinzema A (2013) Lipids from yeasts and fungi: tomorrow’s source of biodiesel? Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.1410
  49. Meng X, Yang J, Xu X, Zhang L, Nie Q, Xian M (2009) Biodiesel production from oleaginous microorganisms Renew. Energy, 34(1):1–5Google Scholar
  50. Miller JA, Bowman CT (1989) Mechanism and modeling of nitrogen chemistry in combustion. Progr Egy Comb Sci 15:287–338Google Scholar
  51. Monyem A, Van Gerpen JH, Canakci M (2001) The effect of timing and oxidation on emissions from biodiesel-fueled engines. Trans ASAE 44(1):35–42Google Scholar
  52. Moser BR, Williams A, Haas MJ, McCormick RL (2009) Exhaust emissions and fuel properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil methyl esters blended with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Fuel Process Technol 90:1122–1128Google Scholar
  53. Mueller CJ, Boehman AL, Martin GC (2009) An experimental investigation of the origin of increased NOx emissions when fueling a heavy-duty compression ignition engine with soy biodiesel. SAE Int, 2009-01-1792:1–28Google Scholar
  54. Muniraj IK , Xiao L, Hu Z, Zhan X, Shi J (2013) Microbial lipid production from potato processing wastewater using oleaginous filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae, Water Res. 47:3477–3484Google Scholar
  55. Muralidharan K, Raja Sankar M, Arun Balasubramanian K, Senthil Kumar D (2018) Environmental effects of a single cylinder DI diesel engine fuelled with non-edible pongamia biodiesel feedstock used for agriculture. Int Jour of Pure Appl Math 118(20):1803–1808Google Scholar
  56. Nabi MN, Hustamed JE (2010) Influence of biodiesel addition to Fischer-Tropsch fuel on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions. Energy Fuel 24:2868–2874Google Scholar
  57. Nabi MN, Najmul Hoque SM, Akhter MS. Karanja (2009a) Pongamia pinnata biodiesel production in Bangladesh, characterization of karanja biodiesel and its effect on diesel emissions. Fuel Process Technol ;90:1080–6Google Scholar
  58. Nabi MN, Rahman MM, Akhter MS (2009b) Biodiesel from cotton seed oil and its effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions. Appl Therm Eng 29(11–12):2265–2270Google Scholar
  59. Oro L, Ciani M, Comitini F (2014) Antimicrobial activity of Metschnikowia pulcherrima on wine yeasts. J Appl Microbiol 116(5):1209–1217Google Scholar
  60. Özener O, Yuksek L, Ergenc AT, Ozkan M (2012) Effects of soybean biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics. Fuel.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.10.081
  61. Pandey RK, Rehman A, Sarviya RM (2012) Impact of alternative fuel properties on fuel spray behavior and atomization. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16:1762–1778Google Scholar
  62. Patel A, Arora N, Pruthi V, Pruthi PA (2018) A novel rapid ultra-sonication-microwave treatment for total lipid extraction from wet oleaginous yeast biomass for sustainable biodiesel production. Ultrason SonochemGoogle Scholar
  63. Poontawee R, Yongmanitchai W, Limtong S (2017) Efficient oleaginous yeasts for lipid production from lignocellulosic sugars and effects of lignocellulose degradation compounds on growth and lipid production. Process Biochem 53:44–60Google Scholar
  64. Raj CS, Arul S, Sendilvelan S, Saravanan CG (2010) A comparative assessment on performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fumigating with methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, and liquefied petroleum gas. Energy Sources Part A Recov Util Environ Effects 32:1603–1613.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15567030902787753 Google Scholar
  65. Ramalingam S, Dufreche S, Zappi M, Bajpai R (2010) Microbial lipids from renewable resources: Production and Characterization. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 37:1271–1287.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-010-0884-5 Google Scholar
  66. Ratledge C (2004) Fatty acid biosynthesis in microorganisms being used for single cell oil production. Biochimie. 86:807–815Google Scholar
  67. Ratledge C, Wynn JP (2002) The biochemistry and molecular biology of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. Adv Appl Microbiol 51:1–51Google Scholar
  68. Ren Y, Li X (2011) Numerical simulation of the soot and NOx formations in a biodiesel fueled engine. 2011-01-1385, SAE International. SAE Technical Papers Series, 2011Google Scholar
  69. Rittmann BE (2008) Opportunities for renewable bioenergy using microorganisms. Biotechnol Bioeng 100:203–212Google Scholar
  70. Robbins C, Hoekman SK, Ceniceros E, Natarajan M (2011) Effects of biodiesel fuels upon criteria emissions, SAE International. In: SAE 2011-01-1943; JSAE 20119349Google Scholar
  71. Rossi M, Amaretti A, Raimondi S, Leonardi A (2011) Getting lipids for biodiesel production from oleaginous fungi. In: Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing TechnologiesGoogle Scholar
  72. Roy MM, Alawi M, Wang W (2013) Effects of canola biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance and emissions. Int J Mech Mechatronics Eng, IJMME-IJENS 13(02)Google Scholar
  73. Ruan Z, Zanotti M, Archer S, Liao W, Liu Y (2014) Oleaginous fungal lipid fermentation on combined acid- and alkali-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate for advanced biofuel production. Bioresour Technol 163:12–17Google Scholar
  74. Sairam K, Anantharaman G, Ramalingam V (2013) A review on combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of fuels derived from oil seed crops (biodiesels). Aust J Crop Sci 7(9):1350–1354Google Scholar
  75. Sakthivel R, Kasimani R (2018) Analytical characterization of products obtained from slow pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum seed cake: study on performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with bio-oil blends. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:9523–9538Google Scholar
  76. Salamaa E-S, Kuradea Mayur B, Abou-Shanabb Reda AI, El-Dalatonya Marwa M, Yanga Seung I, Minc B, Jeona B-H (2017) Recent progress in microalgal biomass production coupled with wastewater treatment for biofuel generation. Ren Sus Egy Rev 79:1189–1211Google Scholar
  77. Šantek MI, Lisičar J, Mušak L, Špoljarić IV, Beluhan S, Šantek B (2018) Lipid production by yeast Trichosporon oleaginosus on the enzymatic hydrolysate of alkaline pretreated corn cobs for biodiesel production. Energy Fuel 32(12):12501–12513Google Scholar
  78. Santomauro F, Whiffin FM, Scott RJ, Chuck CJ (2014) Erratum: low-cost lipid production by an oleaginous yeast cultured in non-sterile conditions using model waste resources (Biotechnology for Biofuels (2014) 7 (42)). Biotechnol Biofuels 7(1):1–29Google Scholar
  79. Satyawali Y, Balakrishnan M (2008) Wastewater treatment in molasses-based alcohol distilleries for COD and color removal: a review. J Environ Manag 86(3):481–497Google Scholar
  80. Shahabuddin M, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Mofijur M, Hazrat MA, Liaquat AM (2012) Effect of additive on performance of C.I. engine fuelled with bio diesel. Energy Procedia 14:1624–1629Google Scholar
  81. Shahir VK, Jawahar CP, Suresh PR (2015) Comparative study of diesel and biodiesel on CI engine with emphasis to emissions—a review. Rene Sus Egy Rev 45:686–697Google Scholar
  82. Shahzad U (2017) Global Warming: Causes, Effects and Solutions Global Warming: Causes, Effects and Solutions, no. August 2015Google Scholar
  83. Singh AP, Shrivastava N (2012) Biodiesel production and effect on DI diesel engine combustion, performance and emissions using biodiesel and its blends—a review. Int J Eng Res Technol 1(6). August 2012 ISSN:2278–0181Google Scholar
  84. Singh SP, Singh D (2010) Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of diesel: a review. Ren Sus Egy Rev 14:200–216Google Scholar
  85. Sinha S, Agarwal AK (2010) Experimental investigation of the effect of biodiesel utilization on lubricating oil degradation and wear of a transportation CIDI Engine. J Eng Gas Turb Power 132:042801–42811.79Google Scholar
  86. Sipiczki M (2014) Metschnikowia laotica f.a., sp. Nov., a dimorphic, pigment-producing yeast species isolated from fruit. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64(PART 6):1847–1852Google Scholar
  87. Sitepu I et al (2013) Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeast species. Bioresour Technol 144:360–369Google Scholar
  88. Sivakumar G, Xu J, Thompson RW, Yang Y, Randol-Smith P, and P. J. Weathers, (2012) Integrated green algal technology for bioremediation and biofuel, Bioresour. Technol 107:1–9Google Scholar
  89. Slininger PJ, Dien Bruce S, Kurtzman Cletus P (2016) Comparative lipid production by oleaginous yeasts in hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass and process strategy for high titers. Biotechnol BioengGoogle Scholar
  90. Sonar D, Soni SL, Sharma D et al (2015) Clean Techn Environ Policy 17:1499.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-014-0874-9 Google Scholar
  91. Subhash GV, Mohan SV (2015) Sustainable biodiesel production through bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastewater by oleaginous fungi. Biomass Convers Biorefinery 5(2):215–226Google Scholar
  92. Sun JF, Caton JA, Jacobs TJ (2010) Oxides of nitrogen emissions from biodiesel-fuelled diesel engines. Prog Energy Combust 36:677–95Google Scholar
  93. Teresa M, Martins AA, Caetano Nidia S (2010) Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: a review. Rene Sus Egy Rev 14:217–232Google Scholar
  94. Thliveros P, Kiran EU, Webb C (2014) Microbial biodiesel production by direct methanolysis of oleaginous biomass. Bioresour Technol 157(August):181–187Google Scholar
  95. Türkel S, Korukluoğlu M, Yavuz M (2014) Biocontrol activity of the local strain of Metschnikowia pulcherrima on different postharvest pathogens. Biotechnol Res Int 2014:1–6Google Scholar
  96. U.S. Congress (2007) H.R. 6: Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. P.L. 110–140Google Scholar
  97. U.S.EPA (2002) A comprehensive analysis of biodiesel impacts on exhaust emissions, EPA420-P-02-001. Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI, U.SGoogle Scholar
  98. Vallinayagam R, Vedharaj S, Yang WM, Saravanan CG, Lee PS, Chua KJE et al (2013) Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter. Atmos Environ 80:190–197Google Scholar
  99. Vieira JPF, Ienczak JL, Costa PS, Rossell CEV, Franco TT, Pradella JGC (2016) Single cell oil production integrated to a sugarcane-mill: Conceptual design, process specifications and economic analysis using molasses as raw material. Ind Crop Prod 89:478–485Google Scholar
  100. Volpato CS, Barbosa JA, and N. Salvador (2012) Performance of Cycle Diesel Engine Using Biodiesel of Olive Oil (B100) Desempenho de motor diesel quatro tempos alimentado com biodiesel de óleo de oliva (B100) 348–353Google Scholar
  101. Vongsvivut J, Heraud P, Gupta A, Puri M, McNaughton D, Barrow CJ (2013) FTIR micro spectroscopy for rapid screening and monitoring of polyunsaturated fatty acid production in commercially valuable marine yeasts and protists. Analyst 138:6016–6031Google Scholar
  102. Wang C, Chen L, Rakesh B, Qin Y, Lv R (2012) Technologies for extracting lipids from oleaginous microorganisms for biodiesel production. Front Energy 6(3):266–274Google Scholar
  103. Whiffin F, Fabio S, Chuck CJ (2016) Toward a microbial palm oil substitute: oleaginous yeasts cultured on lignocellulose. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 10(3):316–334Google Scholar
  104. Wu H, Li Y, Chen L, Zong M (2011) Production of microbial oil with high oleic acid content by Trichosporon capitatum. Appl Energy 88(1):138–142Google Scholar
  105. Wu LF, Chen PC, Huang AP, Lee CM (2012) The feasibility of biodiesel production by microalgae using industrial wastewater. Biores Tech 113:14–18Google Scholar
  106. Yanowitz J, McCormick RL (2009) Effect of biodiesel blends on North American heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Euro J Lipid Sci and Tech 111:763–772Google Scholar
  107. Yasin MHM, Mamat R, Yusop AF, Rahim R, Aziz A, Shah LA (2013) Fuel physical characteristics of biodiesel blend fuels with alcohol as additives. Procedia Eng 53:701–706Google Scholar
  108. Yasin MHM, Mamat R m, Ali OM, Yusop AF, Hamidi MA, Ismail MY, Rasul M (2017) Study of diesel-biodiesel fuel properties and wavelet analysis on cyclic variations in a diesel engine. Energy Procedia 110:498–503Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Government College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Government College of EngineeringBodinayakkanurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringAmrita Vishwa PeethamCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations