Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 10240–10250 | Cite as

Characterization and chemical fixation of stainless steel pickling residue using sodium sulfide hydrate

  • Peidong SuEmail author
  • Yang Li
  • Junke Zhang
  • Yadong Li
Research Article


The stainless steel pickling residue (SSPR) produced from the stainless steel industries in China contains large amounts of heavy metals such as chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni). The study found that the hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) was the primary contributor to the leaching of Cr in the toxicity character leaching test. A chemical fixation with sodium sulfide was used to treat the SSPR, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the process. The results revealed that the sodium sulfide dose and curing time had significant effects on the fixation of Cr. The higher was the sodium sulfide dose, and the longer the curing time, the lower the leaching concentration of Cr would be. The water addition amount had insignificant effect when it was higher than 70%. A dose of 1.2% sodium sulfide on dry mass basis, a water addition of 90–100%, and a curing time of longer than 10 days in the open air could reduce the leaching of Cr to below the beneficial use threshold. The low chemical dose and simple procedures established in this study make this treatment method cost-effective for rendering the SSPR into a nonhazardous and useful material.


Stainless steel pickling residue Heavy metal Sodium sulfide Leaching toxicity Response surface methodology 



The authors thank Professor Fengxiang Han at Jackson State University, MS, USA, and Professor Stan Galicki at Millsaps College, MS, USA for their assistance in XRD analysis of the samples.


This research was jointly funded by the Tsinghua University Graduate School in Shen Zhen, China, and the Jackson State University, USA, through a collaborative effort.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringJackson State UniversityJacksonUSA

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