Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 10083–10096 | Cite as

Estimating the spatial distribution of environmental suitability for female lung cancer mortality in China based on a novel statistical method

  • Xiao Han
  • Yanlong Guo
  • Hong GaoEmail author
  • Jianmin Ma
  • Manjie Sang
  • Sheng Zhou
  • Tao Huang
  • Xiaoxuan Mao
Research Article


Lung cancer as one of the major causes of cancer mortality has been demonstrated to be closely related to the ambient atmospheric environment, but little has been done in the synthetic evaluation of the linkage between cancer mortality and combined impact of ambient air pollution and meteorological conditions. The present study determined the environmental suitability for female lung cancer mortality associated with air contaminants and meteorological variables. A novel fuzzy matter–element method was applied to identify the spatial distribution and regions for the environmental suitability for the female lung cancer mortality across China in 2013. The membership functions between the cancer mortality and 6 environmental factors, including PM2.5, NO2, SO2, PM10, the annual mean wind speed, and mean temperature, were generated and the weights of each of the environmental factors were established by the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model. We categorized the environmental suitability combined with GIS spatial analysis into three zones, including low-suitable, medium-suitable, and high-suitable region where the cancer mortality ranging from low to high rate was identified. These three zones were quantified by the MaxEnt model taking different air pollutants and meteorological variables into consideration. We identified that NO2 was a most significant factor among the 6 environmental factors with the weight of 24.88%, followed by the annual mean wind speed, SO2, and PM2.5. The high-suitable area, mainly in the North China Plain which is a most heavily contaminated region by air pollution in China, covers 1.6195 million square kilometers, accounting for 17.85% of the total area investigated in this study. Identification of the impact of various environmental factors on cancer mortality in the different suitable area provides a scientific basis for the environmental management, risk assessment, and lung cancer control.


Female Lung cancer mortality Spatial distribution China Fuzzy mathematics 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (grant number 2017YFC0212002) and the National Science Foundation of China (grant numbers 41671460 and 41701582).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao Han
    • 1
  • Yanlong Guo
    • 2
  • Hong Gao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jianmin Ma
    • 1
    • 3
  • Manjie Sang
    • 4
  • Sheng Zhou
    • 1
  • Tao Huang
    • 1
  • Xiaoxuan Mao
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Prediction and Control, College of Earth and Environmental SciencesLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing of Gansu Province, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and ResourcesChinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina
  3. 3.College of Urban and Environmental SciencePeking UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.Research Center for Eco-Environment Sciences in ShanxiTaiyuanChina

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