Ameliorative effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles against potassium bromate-mediated toxicity in Swiss albino rats
- 179 Downloads
Potassium bromate (PB) is a commonly used food additive, a prominent water disinfection by-product, and a class IIB carcinogen. It exerts a various degree of toxicity depending on its dose and exposure duration consumed with food and water in the living organisms. The present investigation aims to demonstrate the protective efficacy of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) derived from Ochradenus arabicus (OA) leaf extract by green technology in PB-challenged Swiss albino rats. The rodents were randomly distributed, under the lab-standardized treatment strategy, into the following six treatment groups: control (group I), PB alone (group II), ZnO alone (group III), ZnO NP alone (group IV), PB + ZnO (group V), and PB + ZnO NPs (group VI). The rats were sacrificed after completion of the treatment, and their blood and liver samples were collected for further analysis. Group II showed extensive toxic effects with altered liver function markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, glutathione-S-transferase, and thioredoxin reductase) and compromised redox status (SOD, CAT, GR, GPx, GSH, MDA, and total carbonyl content). The histopathological analysis and comet assay further supported the biochemical results of the same group. Besides, group III also showed moderate toxicity evidenced by an alteration in most of the studied parameters while group IV demonstrated mild toxicity after biochemical analysis indicating the excellent biocompatibility of the NPs. However, group VI exhibited attenuation of the PB-induced toxic insults to a significant level as compared to group II, whereas group V failed to show similar improvement in the studied parameters. All these findings entail that the ZnO NPs prepared by green synthesis have significant ameliorative property against PB-induced toxicity in vivo. Moreover, administration of the NPs improved the overall health of the treated animals profoundly. Hence, these NPs have significant therapeutic potential against the toxic effects of PB and similar compounds in vivo, and they are suitable to be used at the clinical and industrial levels.
KeywordsZinc oxide Nanoparticles Potassium bromate Toxicity In vivo Oxidative stress
The authors would like to extend their sincere thanks to the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for funding this project (KACST Project Number MS-36-67).
IH, HE, and IMA performed the planing of the study and the experimental design. The nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by FMH and RAK, including the related text and figures. IH and JA conducted the animal husbandry, treatment, and in vivo biochemical analysis. IH executed the comet assay, while HE and KEI did the histopathological studies. IMA supervised the study and provided the required lab facilities and all authorized permissions. SA conducted the preparation of figures and statistical analysis. IH, HE, and IMA drafted the manuscript. All the authors have approved the final version of the revised manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
All the experiments and treatment protocols involving animals were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (KSA), under reference number 3/2/177492 (dated 24/05/2015). All the procedures of animal care and treatment were in accord with the guidelines of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA, India) and the National Institutes of Health, USA (the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals).
- Ahmad MK, Naqshbandi A, Fareed M, Mahmood R (2012) Oral administration of a nephrotoxic dose of potassium bromate, a food additive, alters renal redox and metabolic status and inhibits brush border membrane enzymes in rats. Food Chem 134(2):980–985. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.03.004
- Ajarem J, Altoom NG, Allam AA, Maodaa SN, Abdel-Maksoud MA, Chow BK (2016) Oral administration of potassium bromate induces neurobehavioral changes, alters the cerebral neurotransmitters level and impairs brain tissue of Swiss mice. Behav Brain Funct 12(1):14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-016-0098-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ali MA, Farah MA, Al-Hemaid FM, Abou-Tarboush FM, Al-Anazi KM, Wabaidur SM, Alothman ZA, Lee J (2016) Assessment of biological activity and UPLC-MS based chromatographic profiling of ethanolic extract of Ochradenus arabicus. Saudi J Biol Sci 23(2):229–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.02.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Al-Shabib NA, Husain FM, Ahmed F, Khan RA, Ahmad I, Alsharaeh E, Khan MS, Hussain A, Rehman MT, Yusuf M, Hassan I, Khan JM, Ashraf GM, Alsalme A, Al-Ajmi MF, Tarasov VV, Aliev G (2016) Biogenic synthesis of Zinc oxide nanostructures from Nigella sativa seed: Prospective role as food packaging material inhibiting broad-spectrum quorum sensing and biofilm. Sci Rep 6:36761. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep36761
- Ben Saad H, Driss D, Ben Amara I, Boudawara O, Boudawara T, Ellouz Chaabouni S, Mounir Zeghal K, Hakim A (2015) Altered hepatic mRNA expression of immune response-associated DNA damage in mice liver induced by potassium bromate: protective role of vanillin. Environ Toxicol 31:1796–1807. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.22181 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chu Z, Zhang S, Yin C, Lin G, Li Q (2014) Designing nanoparticle carriers for enhanced drug efficacy in photodynamic therapy. Cite this: Biomater Sci 2:827Google Scholar
- Dommels YE, Butts CA, Zhu S, Davy M, Martell S, Hedderley D, Barnett MP, McNabb WC, Roy NC (2007) Characterization of intestinal inflammation and identification of related gene expression changes in mdr1a(-/-) mice. Genes Nutr 2(2):209–223. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12263-007-0051-4
- Fielding M, Hutchison J (1993) Formation of bromate and other ozonation by product in water treatment. In: Proceedings of the IWSA International Workshop on Bromate and Water Treatment, Paris. London, International Water Supply Association, pp. 81–84Google Scholar
- Johnson BM, Fraietta JA, Gracias DT, Hope JL, Stairiker CJ, Patel PR, Mueller YM, McHugh MD, Jablonowski LJ, Wheatley MA, Katsikis PD (2015) Acute exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induces autophagic immune cell death. Nanotoxicology 9(6):737–748. https://doi.org/10.3109/17435390.2014.974709 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kurokawa Y, Maekawa A, Takahashi M, Hayashi Y (1990) Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate—a new renal carcinogen. Environ Health Perspect 87:309–335Google Scholar
- Liu J, Ma X, Jin S, Xue X, Zhang C, Wei T, Guo W, Liang XJ (2016) Zinc oxide nanoparticles as adjuvant to facilitate doxorubicin intracellular accumulation and visualize pH-responsive release for overcoming drug resistance. Mol Pharm 13(5):1723–1730. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.6b00311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ricci JE, Muñoz-Pinedo C, Fitzgerald P, Bailly-Maitre B, Perkins GA, Yadava N, Scheffler IE, Ellisman MH, Green DR (2004) Disruption of mitochondrial function during apoptosis is mediated by caspase cleavage of the p75 subunit of complex I of the electron transport chain. Cell 117(6):773–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wilhelmi V, Fischer U, Weighardt H, Schulze-Osthoff K, Nickel C, Stahlmecke B, Kuhlbusch TA, Scherbart AM, Esser C, Schins RP, Albrecht C (2013) Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce necrosis and apoptosis in macrophages in a p47phox- and Nrf2-independent manner. PLoS One 8(6):e65704. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065704 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang XF, Liu ZG, Shen W, Gurunathan S (2016) Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, properties, applications, and therapeutic approaches. Int J Mol Sci;17(9). doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091534