Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 9599–9609 | Cite as

Metal distribution in sediments of a drinking water reservoir: influence of reservoir morphometry and hydrodynamics

  • Lin Zhu
  • Tianxiang Wang
  • Jianwei LiuEmail author
  • Shiguo Xu
  • Xiaoqiang Chen
  • Xin Jiang
Research Article


Metal(loid)s in the reservoir sediment tend to be released into the water column when encountering disturbances and thus pose threats to the aquatic system. In this study, sediment and pore water samples collected from eight cross sections in the Biliu River Reservoir (Dalian, China) were analyzed to determine the spatial distributions of six metal(loid)s and their associations with reservoir morphometry and hydrodynamics. The results show that total metal concentrations of the sediments are higher at the sites with greater water depths and are influenced by the reservoir morphometry. Mn is of great concern with respect to its increasing total concentration from the upstream sites to the dam sites. According to the improved BCR sequential extraction procedure, the acid-soluble fraction of Mn increases along the thalweg to the dam, implying the soluble Mn2+ in the upstream hypolimnion, and sediment is possible to be transported longitudinally by water currents. For Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, the reducible fraction accounts for more than 15% of the total metal concentration, which suggests that Fe–Mn (hydr)oxides could be important in scavenging these metals. High Mn concentrations in pore waters close to the dam, with an average value of more than 40 mg/L, give rise to significant Mn diffusive flux up to 296.1 mg/m2/day.


Metals Chemical speciation Diffusive flux Mn accumulation Reservoir morphometry Turbidity current 



The authors appreciate the team members from Water and Environmental Research Institute and Management Bureau of Biliu River Reservoir for their necessary assistance in collecting samples. Element testing was conducted in Dalian Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources.

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC0400903), the Natural Sciences Foundation of China (51679026, 51327004), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (DUT17JC17).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_4424_MOESM1_ESM.docx (395 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 395 kb)


  1. Abraham J, Allen P, Dunbar J, Dworkin S (1999) Sediment type distribution in reservoirs: sediment source versus morphometry. Environ Geol 38:101–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlfeld D, Joaquin A, Tobiason J, Mas D (2003) Case study: impact of reservoir stratification on interflow travel time. J Hydraul Eng 129:966–975. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alavian V, Jirka GH, Denton RA, Johnson MC, Stefan HG (1992) Density currents entering lakes and reservoirs. J Hydraul Eng 118:1464–1489. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bacon JR, Davidson CM (2008) Is there a future for sequential chemical extraction? Analyst 133:25–46.
  5. Blais JM, Kalff J (1995) The influence of lake morphometry on sediment focusing. Limnol Oceanogr 40:582–588. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bryant CL, Farmer JG, MacKenzie AB, Bailey-Watts AE, Kirika A (1997) Manganese behavior in the sediments of diverse Scottish freshwater lochs. Limnol Oceanogr 42(5):918–929. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cesare GD, Schleiss A, Hermann F (2001) Impact of turbidity currents on reservoir sedimentation. J Hydraul Eng 127:6–16. 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2001)127:1(6)
  8. Davison W (1993) Iron and manganese in lakes. Earth Sci Rev 34:119–163. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Frohne T, Rinklebe J, Diaz-Bone RA, Du Laing G (2011) Controlled variation of redox conditions in a floodplain soil: impact on metal mobilization and biomethylation of arsenic and antimony. Geoderma 160:414–424. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Graham MC, Gavin KG, Kirika A, Farmer JG (2012) Processes controlling manganese distributions and associations in organic-rich freshwater aquatic systems: the example of Loch Bradan, Scotland. Sci Total Environ 424:239–250. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heiri O, Lotter AF, Lemcke G (2001) Loss on ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: reproducibility and comparability of results. J Paleolimnol 25:101–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Herrero A, Bateman A, Medina V (2013) Sediment resuspension due to density currents caused by a temperature difference: application to the Flix reservoir (Spain). J Hydraul Res 51:76–91. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Horowitz AJ, Elrick KA, Smith JJ (2001) Annual suspended sediment and trace element fluxes in the Mississippi, Columbia, Colorado, and Rio Grande drainage basins. Hydrol Process 15:1169–1207. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Itai T, Kumagai M, Hyobu Y, Hayase D, Horai S, Kuwae M, Tanabe S (2012) Apparent increase in Mn and As accumulation in the surface of sediments in Lake Biwa, Japan, from 1977 to 2009. Geochem J 46:e47–e52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kalnejais LH, Martin WR, Bothner MH (2015) Porewater dynamics of silver, lead and copper in coastal sediments and implications for benthic metal fluxes. Sci Total Environ 517:178–194. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kartal Ş, Aydın Z, Tokalıoğlu Ş (2006) Fractionation of metals in street sediment samples by using the BCR sequential extraction procedure and multivariate statistical elucidation of the data. J Hazard Mater 132:80–89. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kondolf GM, Gao Y, Annandale GW, Morris GL, Jiang E, Zhang J, Cao Y, Carling P, Fu K, Guo Q, Hotchkiss R, Peteuil C, Sumi T, Wang HW, Wang Z, Wei Z, Wu B, Wu C, Yang CT (2014) Sustainable sediment management in reservoirs and regulated rivers: experiences from five continents. Earth Future 2:256–280. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li Y, Gregory S (1974) Diffusion of ions in seawater and in deep-sea sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 38:703–714. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu E, Shen J (2014) A comparative study of metal pollution and potential eco-risk in the sediment of Chaohu Lake (China) based on total concentration and chemical speciation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(12):7285–7295. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. MacDonald DD, Ingersoll CG, Berger TA (2000) Development and evaluation of consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 39:20–31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Morris GL, Fan JH (1998) Reservoir sedimentation handbook: design and management of dams, reservoirs, and watersheds for sustainable use. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Murray LG, Mudge SM, Newton A, Icely JD (2006) The effect of benthic sediments on dissolved nutrient concentrations and fluxes. Biogeochemistry 81:159–178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Munger ZW, Shahady TD, Schreiber ME (2017) Effects of reservoir stratification and watershed hydrology on manganese and iron in a dam-regulated river. Hydrol Process 31:1622–1635. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rauret G, López-Sánchez JF, Sahuquillo A, Rubio R, Davidson C, Ure A, Quevauviller P (1999) Improvement of the BCR three step sequential extraction procedure prior to the certification of new sediment and soil reference materials. J Environ Monitor 1:57–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rodríguez L, Ruiz E, Alonso-Azcarate J, Rincón J (2009) Heavy metal distribution and chemical speciation in tailings and soils around a Pb-Zn mine in Spain. J Environ Manag 90:1106–1116. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shakibainia A, Zarrati AR, Tabatabai MRM (2010) Three-dimensional numerical study of flow structure in channel confluences. Can J Civ Eng 37:772–781. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shotbolt L, Thomas AD, Hutchinson SM (2005) The use of reservoir sediments as environmental archives of catchment inputs and atmospheric pollution. Prog Phys Geogr 29:337–361. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Templeton DM, Ariese F, Cornelis R, Danielsson LG, Muntau H, Van Leeuwen HP, Lobinski R (2000) Guidelines for terms related to chemical speciation and fractionation of elements. Definitions, structural aspects, and methodological approaches. Pure Appl Chem 72:1453–1470. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ullman WJ, Sandstrom MW (1987) Dissolved nutrient fluxes from the nearshore sediments of Bowling Green Bay, central Great Barrier Reef Lagoon (Australia). Estuarine Coast Shelf Sci 24:289–303. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang Y, Wang P, Wu B, Hou S (2015) An experimental study of fluvial processes at asymmetrical river confluences with hyperconcentrated tributary flows. Geomorphology 230:26–36. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhu L, Liu J, Xu S, Xie Z (2017) Deposition behavior, risk assessment and source identification of heavy metals in reservoir sediments of Northeast China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 142:454–463. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lin Zhu
    • 1
  • Tianxiang Wang
    • 1
  • Jianwei Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shiguo Xu
    • 1
  • Xiaoqiang Chen
    • 1
  • Xin Jiang
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Infrastructure EngineeringDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina

Personalised recommendations