Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 9574–9584 | Cite as

Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the effect of tartrazine on the cerebellum, submandibular glands, and kidneys of adult male albino rats

  • Mohamed A. El-sakhawy
  • Dina W Mohamed
  • Yasmine H. AhmedEmail author
Research Article


Tartrazine is one of the most widely used food additives. The present investigation was carried out on 40 adult male albino rats. They were divided into four groups of ten animals for each. Group I was considered as a control group. Group II was treated with tartrazine daily in a dose 7.5 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 30 days. Group III was received 15 mg/kg body weight of tartrazine for the same period. Group IV was administered tartrazine in a dose 100 mg/kg body weight for the whole duration of the experiment. At the end of experiment, samples from the cerebellum, submandibular salivary glands, and kidneys were fixed in neutral buffered formalin 10% and prepared routinely for paraffin sectioning and staining for histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations of proliferating cell nuclear antigen “PCNA” and glial fibrillar acidic protein “GFAP”. Tartrazine-treated groups revealed histopathological degenerative changes in the obtained organs. In group II, the cerebellum showed subcortical edema, congestion of the blood vessels, cytoplasmic vacuolations, and pyknosis of the nuclei in the gray matter neurons. Concerning the submandibular glands, they expressed cytoplasmic vacuolations and pyknosis of the nuclei of the acinar cells, congestion of the interacinar blood capillaries, and degenerative changes in the striated duct. The kidneys appeared with interstitial hemorrhage and dilatation of the glomerular capillaries. The PCT and DCT showed ill-defined cell boundaries. The collecting tubules in the renal medulla appeared with flattened epithelial cells. The severity of these changes increases by increasing the dose of tartrazine in group III and reach to the highest level in group IV. The immunoexpression of the GFAP in the cerebellum of the experimental groups was intense compared to the control group. The immunoreactivity of PCNA in the nuclei of the acinar and ductal cells of the submandibular gland and the cells of the renal cortex and medulla was strong in the tartrazine-treated groups compared to the control group. The current study concluded that the tartrazine had serious effect on the cerebellum, submandibular glands, and kidneys that adversely affect the functions of these organs.


Tartrazine Cerebellum Submandibular glands Kidneys Histology and immunohistochemistry 



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Vet. MedCairo UniversityCairoEgypt

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