Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 9552–9560 | Cite as

Effect of induction hydroxy and hydrogen along with algal biodiesel blend in a CI engine: a comparison of performance and emission characteristics

  • Md. Atiqur RahmanEmail author
Research Article


Gaseous fuel as a combustion enhancer with a pilot fuel offers significant benefits in improving engine efficiency. Hydrogen and hydroxy are the two most common gaseous fuels that have been widely investigated in the CI engine but which one performs best is still inconvenient. In this study, hydrogen and hydroxy were injected with BD40 (v/v) separately in a common diesel engine to compare the performance and emission characteristics of these fuels. Engine performance parameters include brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake-specific energy consumption (BSEC), and exhaust emissions include hydrocarbon (HC), CO, CO2, NOx, and smoke opacity. The induction of both hydroxy and hydrogen with BD40 has a positive effect on engine performance and emissions except NOx when compared to neat diesel fuel and BD40. The BTE of hydroxy-rich BD40 increased by 7.2% while BSEC reduced by 7.6% as compared to BD40 with hydrogen. The CO, HC, and smoke opacity of hydroxy-operated engine was found to be better than hydrogen-inducted engine. The NOx emission increased with the induction of both gaseous fuels and hydroxy-enriched BD40 produced 12.5% more emission than hydrogen-operated BD40 engine. Thus, more concisely, hydroxy-operated biodiesel engine performed better than hydrogen engine in terms of BTE, BSEC, CO, HC, and smoke opacity.


Biodiesel Hydrogen gas Hydroxy gas CI engine Engine performance Exhaust emissions 



Compression ignition


Hydroxy gas


Brake power


Diesel fuel


40% biodiesel + 80% DF (v/v)


Fuel consumption


Brake-specific energy consumption


Brake thermal efficiency


Exhaust gas temperature




Nitrogen oxides


Liquefied petroleum gas


Liquefied natural gas


Liter per minute



This experiment has been carried out in Institute of Fuel Research & Development (IFRD), Dhaka, Bangladesh. The authors would like to thank Lab expert for the technical assistance.

Funding information

Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources, Bangladesh provided partial financial support through research program.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_4380_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 17 kb)


  1. Al-Rousan AA (2010) Reduction of fuel consumption in gasoline engines by introducing HHO gas into intake manifold. Int J Hydrog Energy 35:12930–12935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baltacioglu MK, Arat HT, Özcanli M, Aydin K (2016) Experimental comparison of pure hydrogen and HHO (hydroxy) enriched biodiesel (B10) fuel in a commercial diesel engine. Int J Hydrog Energy 41:8347–8353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bose PK, Maji D (2009) An experimental investigation on engine performance and emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine using hydrogen as inducted fuel and diesel as injected fuel with exhaust gas recirculation. Int J Hydrog Energy 34:4847–4854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dhanasekaran C, Mohankumar G (2016) Dual fuel mode DI diesel engine combustion with hydrogen gas and DEE as ignition source. Int J Hydrog Energy 41:713–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Holman J (1973) Experimental methods for engineers. McGraw- Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Kumar M, Ramesh A, Nagalingam B (2003) Use of hydrogen to enhance the performance of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine. Int J Hydrog Energy 28:1143–1154Google Scholar
  8. Masjuki HH, Ruhul AM, Mustafi NN, Kalam MA, Arbab MI, Rizwanul Fattah IM (2016) Study of production optimization and effect of hydroxyl gas on a CI engine performance and emission fueled with biodiesel blends. Int J Hydrog Energy 41:14519–14528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Musmar SA, Al-Rousan AA (2011) Effect of HHO gas on combustion emissions in gasoline engines. Fuel 90:3066–3070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ozcanli M, Akar MA, Calik A, Serin H (2017) Using HHO (hydroxy) and hydrogen enriched castor oil biodiesel in compression ignition engine. Int J Hydrog Energy 42:23366–23372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rahman MA (2018a) Induction of hydrogen, hydroxy, and LPG with ethanol in a common SI engine: a comparison of performance and emission characteristics. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:3033–3040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rahman MA (2018b) Valorization of harmful algae E. compressa for biodiesel production in presence of chicken waste derived catalyst. Renew Energy 129:132–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rahman MA, Aziz MA, Al-khulaidi RA et al (2017a) Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: optimization of process variable. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 10:140–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rahman MA, Aziz MA, Ruhul AM, Rashid MM (2017b) Biodiesel production process optimization from Spirulina maxima microalgae and performance investigation in a diesel engine. J Mech Sci Technol 31:3025–3033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rahman MA, Ruhul AM, Aziz MA, Ahmed R (2017c) Experimental exploration of hydrogen enrichment in a dual fuel CI engine with exhaust gas recirculation. Int J Hydrog Energy 42:5400–5409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Saravanan N, Nagarajan G (2009) An insight on hydrogen fuel injection techniques with SCR system for NOx reduction in a hydrogen-diesel dual fuel engine. Int J Hydrog Energy 34:9019–9032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Saravanan N, Nagarajan G (2010) Performance and emission studies on port injection of hydrogen with varied flow rates with diesel as an ignition source. Appl Energy 87:2218–2229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Saravanan NÃ, Nagarajan G, Kalaiselvan KM, Dhanasekaran C (2008) An experimental investigation on hydrogen as a dual fuel for diesel engine system with exhaust gas recirculation technique. Renew Energy 33:422–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Uludamar E (2018) Effect of hydroxy and hydrogen gas addition on diesel engine fuelled with microalgae biodiesel. Int J Hydrog Energy 43:18028-18036Google Scholar
  20. Uludamar E, Yildizhan Ş, Aydin K, Özcanli M (2016) Vibration, noise and exhaust emissions analyses of an unmodified compression ignition engine fuelled with low sulphur diesel and biodiesel blends with hydrogen addition. Int J Hydrog Energy 41:11481–11490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wang S, Ji C, Zhang J, Zhang B (2011) Comparison of the performance of a spark-ignited gasoline engine blended with hydrogen and hydrogen-oxygen mixtures. Energy 36:5832–5837CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bangladesh Power Development Board, Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral ResourcesPower DivisionDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations