Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 9314–9321 | Cite as

Activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat brain following low-intensity microwave exposure

  • Ranjeet Kumar
  • Pravin S. Deshmukh
  • Sonal Sharma
  • BasuDev BanerjeeEmail author
Research Article


The present study was designed to explore the effects of low-intensity microwave radiation on endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response. Experiments were performed on male Wistar rats exposed to microwave radiation for 30 days at 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 2450 MHz frequencies on four groups of animal: sham-exposed group, 900 MHz exposed (SAR 5.84 × 10−4 W/kg), 1800 MHz exposed (SAR 5.94 × 10−4 W/kg), and 2450 MHz exposed (SAR 6.7 × 10−4 W/kg) groups. Expressions of mRNA were estimated at the end of exposure in rat brain by real-time quantitative PCR. Microwave exposure at 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz with respective SAR values as mentioned above significantly (< 0.05) altered mRNA expression of transcription factors ATF4, CHOP, and XBP1 in accordance with increasing microwave frequency. The result of the present study reveals that low-intensity microwave exposure at frequencies 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response.


Brain Microwave Endoplasmic reticulum stress Gene expression Unfolded protein response 



The authors would like to express their gratitude to Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, India for providing the major grant to support the microwave exposure facility. One of the authors, Ranjeet Kumar, Junior Research Fellow is grateful to University Grant Commission (UGC), Govt. of India, for providing Fellowship.

Compliance with ethical standards

The protocol and study method were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi (UCMS/IAEC/CAH/2016/093) and care of the animals was undertaken as per guidelines of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals, India.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity College of Medical Sciences, University of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversity College of Medical Sciences, University of DelhiDelhiIndia

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