Evaluation of hydrocar efficiency for simultaneous removal of diclofenac and ibuprofen from aqueous system using surface response methodology
- 44 Downloads
Parmaceutically active compounds like diclofenac (DFS), ibuprofen (IBP), and other drugs that persist in the environment are listed as emerging contaminants. These escape from normal wastewater treatment plants and find their way to water streams; therefore, alternate treatment processes are needed. Herein, a sorbent material is reported that is prepared throug hydrotermal carbonization from dried fruit powder of Zizipus mauritiana L. (TC-ZM) and applied for simultaneous removal of DFS and IBP. Carbonized material (TC-ZM) was found as agglomerates of approximately 1 μm particle size with surface area of 1160 m2/g having oxygen functional groups (e.g., COO, O, C=O) on surface. Simultaneous removal of IBP and DFS onto TC-ZM was studied using response surface methodology with a set of 18 experiments using factors such as pH, amount of sorbent, contact time, and sorbate concentration. Maximum removal efficiency was obtained 88% and 97% for DFS and for IBP, respectively, with adsorption capacity of 2.03 mmol g−1 for DFS and 2.54 mmol g−1 for IBP. Kinetics modeling and “mean free energy” values predicted that sorption is mainly governed by pysical interactions followed by “pore filling” mechanism for uptake of DFS and IBP.
KeywordsRemoval of diclofenac Removal of ibuprofen Hydrocar Hydrotermal carbonization Central composite design Ziziphus mauritiana L.
Financial support from Pak-US Science and Tecnology Cooperation Program, Pase VI (Project No. 6/6/PAK-US/EC/2015/06) is highly acknowledged.
- Arora RK SAACRCNAKSAJSRWS Fruits for the future 2: ber Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Field manual for extension workers. Crops for the future. pp-77Google Scholar
- Azam-Ali S, Bonkoungou E, Bowe C, DeKok C, Godara A, Williams JT (eds) ( 2006) Ber and oter jujubes. In: Fruits for the future. Southampton Centre for Underutilized Crops, Southhampton, pp 18–23Google Scholar
- Boeije G (1999) Chemical fate prediction for use in geo-referenced environmental exposure assessment. PhD Thesis, University of Ghent, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- Deshmane CA, Wright MW, Lachgar A, Rohlfing M, Liu Z, Le J, Hanson BE (2013) A comparative study of solid carbon acid catalysts for the esterification of free fatty acids for biodiesel production. Evidence for the leacing of colloidal carbon. Bioresour Technol 147:597–604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortec.2013.08.073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grassi M, Kaykioglu G, Belgiorno V, Lofrano G (2012) Removal of emerging contaminants from water and wastewater by adsorption process. In: Lofrano G (ed) Emerging compounds removal from wastewater: natural and solar based treatments. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 15–37. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-3916-1_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jain A, Balasubramanian R, Srinivasan MP (2015) Production of high surface area mesoporous activated carbons from waste biomass using hydrogen peroxide-mediated hydrotermal treatment for adsorption applications. Chem Eng J 273:622–629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.03.111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Memon AA, Memon N, Bhanger MI, Lutria DL (2013) Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) fruits: comparison of tree base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids. Food Chem 139:496–502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcem.2013.01.065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mestre AS, Pires RA, Aroso I, Fernandes EM, Pinto ML, Reis RL, Andrade MA, Pires J, Silva SP, Carvalo AP (2014) Activated carbons prepared from industrial pre-treated cork: sustainable adsorbents for pharmaceutical compounds removal. Chem Eng J 253:408–417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.05.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Oaks JL, Gilbert M, Virani MZ, Watson RT, Meteyer CU, Rideout BA, Sivaprasad L, Amed S, Iqbal Caudry MJ, Arsad M, Mamood S, Ali A, Amed Kan A (2004) Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 427(6975):630–633. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v427/n6975/suppinfo/nature02317_S1.tml CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pailler JY, Krein A, Pfister L, offmann L, Guignard C (2009) Solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatograpy-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, analgesics and hormones in surface water and wastewater in Luxembourg. Sci Total Environ 407:4736–4743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.04.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Quresi T, Memon N, Memon SQ, Shaik H (2014) Determination of ibuprofen drug in aqueous environmental samples by gas chromatograpy–mass spectrometry without derivatization. Am J Modern Chromatogr 1:45–54Google Scholar
- Shaik H, Memon N, Bhanger M, Nizamani S (2014) GC/MS based non-target screening of organic contaminants in river Indus and its tributaries in Sindh (Pakistan). Pakistan J Anal Environ Chem 15:42–65Google Scholar
- Titirici M-M (2012) Chapter 12 - hydrotermal carbons: synthesis, characterization, and applications A2 - Tascón. In: Juan MD (ed) Novel carbon adsorbents. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 351–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097744-7.00012-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar