Hydrochars produced with by-products from the sucroenergetic industry: a study of extractor solutions on nutrient and organic carbon release
Hydrothermal carbonization transforms biomass into value-added material called hydrochar. The release of nutrients (P, N, Ca, Mg, and K) and organic carbon (TOC) from hydrochar in different extractive solutions was investigated in this study. Two sets of hydrochar were produced: (i) hydrochar prepared from sugarcane bagasse and vinasse mixture (BV-HC) and (ii) hydrochar prepared by the addition of H3PO4 to this mixture (BVA-HC). Both hydrochar types released significative amounts of nutrient and organic carbon, mainly Ca (5.0 mg g−1) in the mixture (KCl, K2SO4, NaOH, 1:1:1) extractive solution and TOC (72.6 mg g−1) in the NaOH extractive solution, for BV-HC. Nutrient release was influenced by pH and ionic strength. The release of P, Ca, and Mg was affected by the presence of insoluble phosphate phases in BVA-HC. The release of nutrients P, N, Ca, Mg, and K and organic carbon demonstrated that hydrochar has potential for soil application purposes.
KeywordsHydrochar Nutrients Release Vinasse Sugarcane bagasse Slow release fertilizer
The authors are grateful to the Laboratório de Sucroquímica e Química Analítica – UNESP/IBILCE for providing the infrared spectrometer.
This study received financial support and scholarship from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo FAPESP (Grants 2005/51242-8, 2013/21776-7, 2014/10368-8, 2014/22400-3), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq (Grants 445487/2014-3 and 307925/2012-9), Fundação Cearense de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - FUNCAP (Grant PRONEX PR2-0101-00006.01.00/15) and from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES (Grant PROCAD 2013 grant 183995).
- AAPFCO (1995) Association of American Plant Food Control Officials Commercial fertilizers. University of Kentucky, Lexington, KYGoogle Scholar
- APHA (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- CONAB - Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento, 2018. Cana-de-açúcar, Safra 2017/2018. Quarto Levantamento, Abril de 2018. http://www.conab.gov.br (accessed 10 May 2018)
- Fregolente LG, Miguel TBAZ, Miguel EC, Melo CA, Moreira AB, Ferreira OP, Bisinoti MC (2018) Toxicity evaluation of process water from hydrothermal carbonization of sugarcane industry byproducts. Environ Sci Pollut Res:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1771-2
- Melo CA, Moreira AB, Bisinoti MC, Ferreira OP, Santana RL, Soares FH, 2016. Process for the production of solid material rich in carbon and nutrients from the vinasse and bagasse of the sugar and alcohol industry. Patent number PCT/BR2017/050017, 01/Feb/2016Google Scholar
- Melo CA, Junior FHS, Bisinoti MC, Moreira AB, Ferreira OP (2017) Transforming sugarcane bagasse and vinasse wastes into hydrochar in the presence of phosphoric acid: an evaluation of nutrient contents and structural properties. Waste and Biomass Valorization 8:1139–1151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-016-9664-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reyes-Cabrera J, Leon RG, Erickson JE, Rowland DL, Silveira ML, Morgan KT (2017) Differences in biomass and water dynamics between a cotton-peanut rotation and a sweet sorghum bioenergy crop with and without biochar and vinasse as soil amendments. Field Crop Res 214:123–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2017.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yin Q, Zhang B, Wang R, Zhao Z (2017) Biochar as an adsorbent for inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus removal from water: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0338-y
- Zhang A, Liu Y, Pan G, Hussain Q, Li L, Zheng J, Zhang X (2011) Effect of biochar amendment on maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a soil organic carbon poor calcareous loamy soil from Central China Plain. Plant Soil 351:263–275. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-0957-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar