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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 8798–8807 | Cite as

Immunostimulating effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against toxicity induced by organophosphate pesticide, diazinon in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss: innate immunity components and immune-related genes

  • Saeed HajirezaeeEmail author
  • Ahmad Rafieepour
  • Shafigh Shafiei
  • Ruhollah Rahimi
Research Article

Abstract

The immunostimulating and therapeutic properties of Ginkgo biloba (GB) have always been the focus of traditional medicine over thousands of years. During last decade, special attentions were paid to use of GB in aquaculture to enhance fish health and survival. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the immunogenic effects of dietary GB against oxidative and toxicity induced by organophosphate pesticide, diazinon. In non-diazinon-exposed fish, the plasma total immunoglobulin, lysozyme activity, and peroxidase activity significantly elevated after 60-day experiment in fish supplemented with 1 and 2 g GB/kg diet (p < 0.05). The respiratory burst activity and complement activity significantly increased only in groups supplemented with 0.5 g GB/kg diet (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the peroxidase activity, total immunoglobulin, and lysozyme activity significantly declined in groups supplemented with 4 g GB/kg diet during feeding trial (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in expression of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) genes in kidney between control group (non-GB-supplemented fish) and GB-supplemented fish (p > 0.05). In diazinon-exposed fish, all immunity components significantly decreased during exposure in control and those fed 0.5 and 4 g GB/kg diet (p < 0.05). In fish fed 1 and 2 g GB/kg diet, no alternations were found in immunity components during exposure period (p > 0.05). In addition, diazinon induced the expression of IL-1β and TGF-β1 genes in control and fish fed 0.5 and 4 g GB/kg diet (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in expression of IL-1β and TGF-β1 genes in fish supplemented with 1 and 2 g GB/kg (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest an immunogenic role for dietary GB at optimum dietary levels (1–2 g GB/kg diet) against toxicity induced by diazinon. Nevertheless, GB at high dietary levels (4 g GB/kg diet) showed immunosuppressive effects, which makes it necessary to optimize its levels in diet.

Keywords

Fish Pesticide Plant extract Immunity Gene expression 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors express their sincere gratitude to the people who lent their time, advice, and support to this study.

Funding information

This study was supported by university of Jiroft under the grant No. 4813-97-7.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saeed Hajirezaee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmad Rafieepour
    • 1
  • Shafigh Shafiei
    • 2
  • Ruhollah Rahimi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural ResourcesUniversity of JiroftJiroftIran
  2. 2.Department of food hygiene and quality control, Faculty of veterinary medicineShahrekord UniversityShahrekordIran
  3. 3.Department of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth SciencesShahrekord UniversityShahrekordIran

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